English Spanish
#define getstr(n) nlsstr[n]
#include nl_types.h
catalog = catopen("myapp", NL_CAT_LOCALE);
#include nl_types.h
nl_catd catalog;
#include err.h
#include errno.h
if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
errno = ENOTDIR;
err(1, NULL);
#include err.h
if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
errx(1, "argument is not a directory");
#include err.h
if ((p = malloc(size)) == NULL)
err(1, NULL);
$set 1
.if !defined(WITHOUT_NLS)
NLS= es_ES.ISO8859-1
NLS+= hu_HU.ISO8859-2
NLS+= pt_BR.ISO8859-1
* Default messages to use when NLS is disabled or no catalog
* is found.
char *nlsstr[] = {
/* 1*/ "some random message",
/* 2*/ "some other message"
15 "File not found: %s\n"
A Call to Unify the I18N Effort
A Practical Example
After opening a catalog man:catgets[3] can be used to retrieve a message. The first parameter is the catalog identifier returned by man:catopen[3], the second one is the number of the set, the third one is the number of the messages, and the fourth one is a fallback message, which will be returned if the requested message cannot be retrieved from the catalog file.
After using the catalog file, it must be closed by calling man:catclose[3], which has one argument, the catalog id.
Beyond the basic I18N functions, like supporting various input encodings or supporting national conventions, such as the different decimal separators, at a higher level of I18N, it is possible to localize the messages written to the output by the various programs. A common way of doing this is using the POSIX.1 NLS functions, which are provided as a part of the FreeBSD base system.
Chapter 4. Localization and Internationalization - L10N and I18N
Conventionally, the catalog files are placed under the [.filename]#nls# subdirectory and this is the default behavior of [.filename]#bsd.nls.mk#. It is possible, though to override the location of the catalogs with the `NLSSRCDIR` man:make[1] variable. The default name of the precompiled catalog files also follow the naming convention mentioned before. It can be overridden by setting the `NLSNAME` variable. There are other options to fine tune the processing of the catalog files but usually it is not needed, thus they are not described here. For further information on [.filename]#bsd.nls.mk#, please refer to the file itself, it is short and easy to understand.
Currently, we hope that, when you write or port I18N programs, you would send it out to each country's related FreeBSD mailing list for testing. In the future, we hope to create applications that work in all the languages out-of-the-box without dirty hacks.