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hostname="hostc.example.org"
ifconfig_fxp0="inet 192.168.1.5 netmask 255.255.255.0"
cloned_interfaces="carp0 carp1"
ifconfig_carp0="vhid 1 advskew 100 pass testpass 192.168.1.50/24"
ifconfig_carp1="vhid 2 advskew 100 pass testpass 192.168.1.51/24"
Preemption is disabled in the [.filename]#GENERIC# FreeBSD kernel. If preemption has been enabled with a custom kernel, `hostc.example.org` may not release the IP address back to the original content server. The administrator can force the backup server to return the IP address to the master with the command:
# ifconfig carp0 down && ifconfig carp0 up
This should be done on the [.filename]#carp# interface which corresponds to the correct host.
VLANs
VLANs are a way of virtually dividing up a network into many different subnetworks, also referred to as segmenting. Each segment will have its own broadcast domain and be isolated from other VLANs.
On FreeBSD, VLANs must be supported by the network card driver. To see which drivers support vlans, refer to the man:vlan[4] manual page.
When configuring a VLAN, a couple pieces of information must be known. First, which network interface? Second, what is the VLAN tag?
To configure VLANs at run time, with a NIC of `em0` and a VLAN tag of `5` the command would look like this:
# ifconfig em0.5 create vlan 5 vlandev em0 inet 192.168.20.20/24
See how the interface name includes the NIC driver name and the VLAN tag, separated by a period? This is a best practice to make maintaining the VLAN configuration easy when many VLANs are present on a machine.
To configure VLANs at boot time, [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf# must be updated. To duplicate the configuration above, the following will need to be added:
vlans_em0="5"
ifconfig_em0_5="inet 192.168.20.20/24"
Additional VLANs may be added, by simply adding the tag to the `vlans_em0` field and adding an additional line configuring the network on that VLAN tag's interface.
It is useful to assign a symbolic name to an interface so that when the associated hardware is changed, only a few configuration variables need to be updated. For example, security cameras need to be run over VLAN 1 on `em0`. Later, if the `em0` card is replaced with a card that uses the man:ixgb[4] driver, all references to `em0.1` will not have to change to `ixgb0.1`.
To configure VLAN `5`, on the NIC `em0`, assign the interface name `cameras`, and assign the interface an IP address of `_192.168.20.20_` with a `24`-bit prefix, use this command:
# ifconfig em0.5 create vlan 5 vlandev em0 name cameras inet 192.168.20.20/24
For an interface named `video`, use the following:
# ifconfig video.5 create vlan 5 vlandev video name cameras inet 192.168.20.20/24
To apply the changes at boot time, add the following lines to [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf#: