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IV. Network Communication
Chapter 32. Advanced Networking
How to set up IEEE(R) 802.11 and Bluetooth(R) devices.
How to set up network PXE booting.
How to set up IPv6 on a FreeBSD machine.
How to enable and utilize the features of the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) in FreeBSD.
How to configure multiple VLANs on FreeBSD.
Understand the basics of the [.filename]#/etc/rc# scripts.
Know how to configure and install a new FreeBSD kernel (crossref:kernelconfig[kernelconfig,Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel]).
Know how to install additional third-party software (crossref:ports[ports,Installing Applications: Packages and Ports]).
To view the routing table of a FreeBSD system, use man:netstat[1]:
% netstat -r
Routing tables
Internet:
Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expire
default outside-gw UGS 37 418 em0
localhost localhost UH 0 181 lo0
test0 0:e0:b5:36:cf:4f UHLW 5 63288 re0 77
10.20.30.255 link#1 UHLW 1 2421
example.com link#1 UC 0 0
host1 0:e0:a8:37:8:1e UHLW 3 4601 lo0
host2 0:e0:a8:37:8:1e UHLW 0 5 lo0 =>
host2.example.com link#1 UC 0 0
224 link#1 UC 0 0
The default route for a machine which itself is functioning as the gateway to the outside world will be the gateway machine at the Internet Service Provider (ISP).
The final line (destination subnet `224`) deals with multicasting.
| Command
| Purpose

|U
|The route is active (up).

|H
|The route destination is a single host.

|G
|Send anything for this destination on to this gateway, which will figure out from there where to send it.

|S
|This route was statically configured.

|C
|Clones a new route based upon this route for machines to connect to. This type of route is normally used for local networks.

|W
|The route was auto-configured based upon a local area network (clone) route.

|L
|Route involves references to Ethernet (link) hardware.
On a FreeBSD system, the default route can defined in [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf# by specifying the IP address of the default gateway:
It is also possible to manually add the route using `route`:
# route add default 10.20.30.1
static-routes.png