English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
# Add Internal Net 2 as a persistent static route
static_routes="internalnet2"
route_internalnet2="-net 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.2"
# Add Internal Net 2 as a persistent static route
static_routes="internalnet2"
route_internalnet2="-net 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.2"
/b -ro -alldirs -maproot=root
/b -ro -alldirs -maproot=root
The RFCOMM protocol provides emulation of serial ports over the L2CAP protocol. RFCOMM is a simple transport protocol, with additional provisions for emulating the 9 circuits of RS-232 (EIATIA-232-E) serial ports. It supports up to 60 simultaneous connections (RFCOMM channels) between two Bluetooth devices. <acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>协议通过<acronym>L2CAP</acronym>协议提供串行端口的仿真。<acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>是一种简单的传输协议,为模拟 RS-232 (EIATIA-232-E) 串行端口的 9 个电路提供了额外规定。它支持两个蓝牙设备之间多达 60 个同时连接(<acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>通道)。
RFCOMM is only concerned with the connection between the devices in the direct connect case, or between the device and a modem in the network case. RFCOMM can support other configurations, such as modules that communicate via Bluetooth wireless technology on one side and provide a wired interface on the other side. <acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>只关注直连箱中的设备之间的连接,或者设备与网络箱中的调制解调器之间的连接。<acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>可以支持其他配置,例如通过蓝牙无线技术进行通信的模块,在一侧通过蓝牙无线技术进行通信,在另一侧提供有线接口。
SDP involves communication between a SDP server and a SDP client. The server maintains a list of service records that describe the characteristics of services associated with the server. Each service record contains information about a single service. A client may retrieve information from a service record maintained by the SDP server by issuing a SDP request. If the client, or an application associated with the client, decides to use a service, it must open a separate connection to the service provider in order to utilize the service. SDP provides a mechanism for discovering services and their attributes, but it does not provide a mechanism for utilizing those services. <acronym>SDP</acronym>涉及<acronym>SDP</acronym>服务器和<acronym>SDP</acronym>客户端之间的通信。服务器维护着一个服务记录列表,这些记录描述了与服务器相关联的服务特征。每个服务记录包含有关单个服务信息。客户端可以通过发出 <acronym>SDP</acronym>请求,从 <acronym>SDP</acronym>服务器维护的服务记录中检索信息。如果客户机或与客户机相关联的应用程序决定使用服务,它必须打开与服务提供商的单独连接才能使用该服务。<acronym>SDP</acronym>提供了一种发现服务及其属性的机制,但它并没有提供利用这些服务的机制。
VLANs are a way of virtually dividing up a network into many different subnetworks, also referred to as segmenting. Each segment will have its own broadcast domain and be isolated from other VLANs. <acronym>VLAN</acronym>是一种虚拟网络划分方法,将一个网络划分成多个虚拟子网。每个子网由自己的广播域,并与其他 VLAN 独立。
The `host1` line refers to the host by its Ethernet address. Since it is the sending host, FreeBSD knows to use the loopback interface ([.filename]#lo0#) rather than the Ethernet interface. <literal>host1</literal> 行代表我们的主机,它通过以太网地址来识别。 因为我们是发送端,FreeBSD知道使用回环接口 (<filename>lo0</filename>) 而不是通过以太网接口来进行发送。
# service netif start
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 5
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.0.1
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/36Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif start</userinput>
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 5
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.0.1
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/36Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
# service netif start
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 7
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 15
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.20
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet DS/11Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif start</userinput>
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 7
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 15
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.20
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet DS/11Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
# service netif start
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 7
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 15
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 21
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.20
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet DS/11Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif start</userinput>
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 7
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 15
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 21
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.20
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet DS/11Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
% snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
These addresses are syntactically indistinguishable from unicast addresses but they address a group of interfaces. The packet destined for an anycast address will arrive at the nearest router interface. Anycast addresses are only used by routers. Anycast 地址语义上与 unicast 地址没有差别, 只是它们强调一组接口。指定为 anycast 地址的包会到达最近的 (以路由为单位) 接口。Anycast 地址可能只被路由器使用。
Bluetooth is a wireless technology for creating personal networks operating in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed band, with a range of 10 meters. Networks are usually formed ad-hoc from portable devices such as cellular phones, handhelds, and laptops. Unlike Wi-Fi wireless technology, Bluetooth offers higher level service profiles, such as FTP-like file servers, file pushing, voice transport, serial line emulation, and more. Bluetooth (蓝牙) 是一项无线技术, 用于建立带宽为 2.4GHZ,波长为 10 米的私有网络。 网络一般是由便携式设备,比加手机 (cellular phone), 掌上电脑 (handhelds) 和膝上电脑 (laptops)) 以 ad-hoc 形式组成。不象其它流行的无线技术――Wi-Fi,Bluetooth 提供了更高级的服务层面,像类 FTP 的文件服务、文件推送 (file pushing)、语音传送、串行线模拟等等。
FreeBSD natively supports both multicast applications and multicast routing. Multicast applications do not require any special configuration in order to run on FreeBSD. Support for multicast routing requires that the following option be compiled into a custom kernel: FreeBSD 一开始就支持多播应用软件和多播路由选择。 多播程序并不要求FreeBSD的任何特殊的配置, 就可以工作得很好。多播路由需要支持被编译入内核:
High availability using CARP is built into FreeBSD, though the steps to configure it vary slightly depending upon the FreeBSD version. This section provides the same example configuration for versions before and equal to or after FreeBSD 10. FreeBSD 内建 <acronym>CARP</acronym>,不过随着 FreeBSD 版本不通,配置可能会有些许不通。本节适用于 FreeBSD 10 之后的版本。
FreeBSD can act as an Access Point (AP) which eliminates the need to buy a hardware AP or run an ad-hoc network. This can be particularly useful when a FreeBSD machine is acting as a gateway to another network such as the Internet. FreeBSD 可以作为一个(无线)访问接入点(AP), 这样可以不必再去买一个硬件 AP 或者使用 ad-hoc 模式的网络。 当你的 FreeBSD 机器作为网关连接到另外一个网络的时候将非常有用。
FreeBSD supports networks that operate using 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g. The WPA and 802.11i security protocols are likewise supported (in conjunction with any of 11a, 11b, and 11g) and QoS and traffic prioritization required by the WME/WMM protocols are supported for a limited set of wireless devices. FreeBSD 支持采用 802.11a, 802.11b 和 802.11g 的网络。 类似地, 它也支持 WPA 和 802.11i 安全协议 (与 11a、 11b 和 11g 配合), 而 WME/WMM 所需要的 QoS 和流量分级, 则在部分无线设备上提供了支持。
PTS=`rfcomm_sppd -a 00:07:E0:00:0B:CA -t`
cu -l $PTS
PTS=`rfcomm_sppd -a 00:07:E0:00:0B:CA -t`
cu -l $PTS
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is part of the original 802.11 standard. There is no authentication mechanism, only a weak form of access control which is easily cracked. WEP (有线等效协议) 是最初 802.11 标准的一部分。 其中没有提供身份验证机制, 只提供了弱访问控制, 而且很容易破解。
WPA-PSK, also known as WPA Personal, is based on a pre-shared key (PSK) which is generated from a given password and used as the master key in the wireless network. This means every wireless user will share the same key. WPA-PSK is intended for small networks where the use of an authentication server is not possible or desired. WPA-PSK 也称作 个人-WPA, 它基于预先分发的密钥 (PSK), 这个密钥是根据作为无线网络上使用的主密钥的密码生成的。 这表示每个无线用户都会使用同样的密钥。 WPA-PSK 主要用于小型网络, 在这种网络中, 通常不需要或没有办法架设验证服务器。