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getpid 6131
sigreturn 8121
close 19127
fcntl 19959
dup 26955
setpgid 28070
stat 31899
setitimer 40938
wait4 62717
sigaction 67372
sigprocmask 119091
gettimeofday 183710
write 263242
execve 492547
ioctl 770073
vfork 3258923
sigsuspend 6985124
read 3988049784
# ./hotkernel -m
Sampling... Hit Ctrl-C to end.
0xc107882e 1 0.0%
0xc10e6aa4 1 0.0%
0xc1076983 1 0.0%
0xc109708a 1 0.0%
0xc1075a5d 1 0.0%
0xc1077325 1 0.0%
0xc108a245 1 0.0%
0xc107730d 1 0.0%
0xc1097063 2 0.0%
0xc108a253 73 0.0%
kernel 874 0.4%
0xc10981a5 213781 99.6%
# ./procsystime -n csh
Tracing... Hit Ctrl-C to end...
# cd /usr/local/share/dtrace-toolkit
# ./hotkernel
Sampling... Hit Ctrl-C to end.
# dtrace -l | more
# kldload dtraceall
After reading this chapter, you will know:
As instructed, use the kbd:[Ctrl+C] key combination to stop the process. Upon termination, the script will display a list of kernel functions and timing information, sorting the output in increasing order of time:
As shown, the `read()` system call used the most time in nanoseconds while the `getpid()` system call used the least amount of time.
Before reading this chapter, you should:
Beginning with FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE, the modules are automatically loaded when `dtrace` is run.
Chapter 25. DTrace
DTrace falls under the Common Development and Distribution License (`CDDL`) license. To view this license on FreeBSD, see [.filename]#/usr/src/cddl/contrib/opensolaris/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE# or view it online at http://opensource.org/licenses/CDDL-1.0[http://opensource.org/licenses/CDDL-1.0]. While a FreeBSD kernel with DTrace support is `BSD` licensed, the `CDDL` is used when the modules are distributed in binary form or the binaries are loaded.
DTrace is a remarkable profiling tool, with an impressive array of features for diagnosing system issues. It may also be used to run pre-written scripts to take advantage of its capabilities. Users can author their own utilities using the DTrace D Language, allowing them to customize their profiling based on specific needs.
DTrace scripts consist of a list of one or more _probes_, or instrumentation points, where each probe is associated with an action. Whenever the condition for a probe is met, the associated action is executed. For example, an action may occur when a file is opened, a process is started, or a line of code is executed. The action might be to log some information or to modify context variables. The reading and writing of context variables allows probes to share information and to cooperatively analyze the correlation of different events.
DTrace, also known as Dynamic Tracing, was developed by Sun(TM) as a tool for locating performance bottlenecks in production and pre-production systems. In addition to diagnosing performance problems, DTrace can be used to help investigate and debug unexpected behavior in both the FreeBSD kernel and in userland programs.
Differences between the Solaris(TM) DTrace implementation and the one provided by FreeBSD.
Due to security differences, only `root` may use DTrace on FreeBSD. Solaris(TM) has a few low level security checks which do not yet exist in FreeBSD. As such, the [.filename]#/dev/dtrace/dtrace# is strictly limited to `root`.
Each probe has an `ID`, a `PROVIDER` (dtrace or fbt), a `MODULE`, and a `FUNCTION NAME`. Refer to man:dtrace[1] for more information about this command.