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Know how to install applications as described in crossref:ports[ports,Installing Applications: Packages and Ports].
Setting Up the Sound Card
Before beginning the configuration, determine the model of the sound card and the chip it uses. FreeBSD supports a wide variety of sound cards. Check the supported audio devices list of the link:{u-rel120-hardware}[Hardware Notes] to see if the card is supported and which FreeBSD driver it uses.
In order to use the sound device, its device driver must be loaded. The easiest way is to load a kernel module for the sound card with man:kldload[8]. This example loads the driver for a built-in audio chipset based on the Intel specification:
# kldload snd_hda
To automate the loading of this driver at boot time, add the driver to [.filename]#/boot/loader.conf#. The line for this driver is:
Other available sound modules are listed in [.filename]#/boot/defaults/loader.conf#. When unsure which driver to use, load the [.filename]#snd_driver# module:
# kldload snd_driver
This is a metadriver which loads all of the most common sound drivers and can be used to speed up the search for the correct driver. It is also possible to load all sound drivers by adding the metadriver to [.filename]#/boot/loader.conf#.
To determine which driver was selected for the sound card after loading the [.filename]#snd_driver# metadriver, type `cat /dev/sndstat`.
Configuring a Custom Kernel with Sound Support
This section is for users who prefer to statically compile in support for the sound card in a custom kernel. For more information about recompiling a kernel, refer to crossref:kernelconfig[kernelconfig,Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel].
When using a custom kernel to provide sound support, make sure that the audio framework driver exists in the custom kernel configuration file:
device sound
Next, add support for the sound card. To continue the example of the built-in audio chipset based on the Intel specification from the previous section, use the following line in the custom kernel configuration file:
device snd_hda
Be sure to read the manual page of the driver for the device name to use for the driver.
Non-PnP ISA sound cards may require the IRQ and I/O port settings of the card to be added to [.filename]#/boot/device.hints#. During the boot process, man:loader[8] reads this file and passes the settings to the kernel. For example, an old Creative SoundBlaster(R) 16 ISA non-PnP card will use the man:snd_sbc[4] driver in conjunction with `snd_sb16`. For this card, the following lines must be added to the kernel configuration file:
device snd_sbc
device snd_sb16