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The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> The <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
Label a socket, <parameter>newsocket</parameter>, newly <citerefentry><refentrytitle>accept</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>ed, based on the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>listen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> socket, <parameter>oldsocket</parameter>. 根据 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>listen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>套接字 <parameter>oldsocket</parameter>,为新建 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>accept</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum> 的套接字 <parameter>newsocket</parameter>,设置标记。
Management of Physical Memory—<literal>vm_page_t</literal> 物理内存的管理&mdash;<literal>vm_page_t</literal>
The Unified Buffer Cache—<literal>vm_object_t</literal> 统一的缓存信息结构体&mdash;<literal>vm_object_t</literal>
FreeBSD implements the idea of a generic <quote>VM object</quote>. VM objects can be associated with backing store of various types—unbacked, swap-backed, physical device-backed, or file-backed storage. Since the filesystem uses the same VM objects to manage in-core data relating to files, the result is a unified buffer cache. FreeBSD实现了统一的<quote>虚拟内存对象</quote>(VM对象)的设计思想。VM对象可以与各种类型的内存使用方式相结合&mdash;直接使用(unbacked)、交换(swap)、物理设备、文件。由于文件系统使用相同的VM对象管理核内数据&mdash;文件的缓存,所以这些缓存的结构也是统一的。
Filesystem I/O—<literal>struct buf</literal> 文件系统输入/输出&mdash;<literal>buf</literal>结构体
Mapping Page Tables—<literal>vm_map_t, vm_entry_t</literal> 映射页表&mdash;<literal>vm_map_t, vm_entry_t</literal>
Following the pattern of several other multi-threaded <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> kernels, FreeBSD deals with interrupt handlers by giving them their own thread context. Providing a context for interrupt handlers allows them to block on locks. To help avoid latency, however, interrupt threads run at real-time kernel priority. Thus, interrupt handlers should not execute for very long to avoid starving other kernel threads. In addition, since multiple handlers may share an interrupt thread, interrupt handlers should not sleep or use a sleepable lock to avoid starving another interrupt handler. 与许多其它多线程 &unix; 内核所采取的模式类似, FreeBSD会赋予中断处理程序独立的线程上下文,这样做能够让中断线程在遇到锁时阻塞。 但为了避免不必要的延迟,中断线程在内核中, 是以实时线程的优先级运行的。 因此,中断处理程序不应执行过久, 以免饿死其它内核线程。 此外,由于多个处理程序可以分享同一中断线程, 中断处理程序不应休眠,或使用可能导致休眠的锁, 以避免将其它中断处理程序饿死。
Most devices in a <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like operating system are accessed through device-nodes, sometimes also called special files. These files are usually located under the directory <filename>/dev</filename> in the filesystem hierarchy. 类&unix;操作系统中的大多数设备都是通过设备节点来访问的,有时也被称为特殊文件。这些文件在文件系统的层次结构中通常位于<filename>/dev</filename>目录下。在FreeBSD 5.0-RELEASE以前的发行版中, 对<citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>的支持还没有被集成到FreeBSD中,每个设备节点必须要静态创建,并且独立于相关设备驱动程序的存在。系统中大多数设备节点是通过运行<command>MAKEDEV</command>创建的。
<command>kldload</command> - loads a new kernel module <command>kldload</command> - loads a new kernel module
<command>kldstat</command> - lists loaded modules <command>kldstat</command> - lists loaded modules