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Long before the term <quote>Open Source</quote> was used, software was developed by loose associations of programmers and freely exchanged. Starting in the early 1950's, organizations such as <link xlink:href="http://www.share.org">SHARE</link> and <link xlink:href="http://www.decus.org">DECUS</link> developed much of the software that computer hardware companies bundled with their hardware offerings. At that time computer companies were in the hardware business; anything that reduced software cost and made more programs available made the hardware companies more competitive.
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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.xml 53942 2020-03-01 12:23:40Z carlavilla $
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.xml 53942 2020-03-01 12:23:40Z carlavilla $
Introduction
Introducción
This document makes a case for using a BSD style license for software and data; specifically it recommends using a BSD style license in place of the GPL. It can also be read as a BSD versus GPL Open Source License introduction and summary.
Este documento aboga por emplear la licencia de estilo BSD para software y datos; recomienda específicamente usar una licencia de estilo BSD en lugar de la licencia GPL. Se puede leer también como una introducción o resumen de la licencia de Código Abierto BSD frente a la GPL.
Very Brief Open Source History
Una historia muy breve del Código Abierto
Long before the term <quote>Open Source</quote> was used, software was developed by loose associations of programmers and freely exchanged. Starting in the early 1950's, organizations such as <link xlink:href="http://www.share.org">SHARE</link> and <link xlink:href="http://www.decus.org">DECUS</link> developed much of the software that computer hardware companies bundled with their hardware offerings. At that time computer companies were in the hardware business; anything that reduced software cost and made more programs available made the hardware companies more competitive.
Mucho antes de que el término <quote>Código Abierto</quote> fuera usado, el software estaba desarrollado por vagas asociaciones de programadores que lo intercambiaban libremente. Comenzando a principio de los años 50, organizaciones tales como <link xlink:href="http://www.share.org">SHARE</link> y <link xlink:href="http://www.decus.org">DECUS</link> desarrollaron mucho del software que las compañías de hardware incluían en sus ofertas. En aquel entonces las compañías de ordenadores se dedicaban al negocio del hardware; cualquier cosa que redujera los costos del software e hiciera que más programas estuvieran disponibles hacía a las compañías de hardware más competitivas.
This model changed in the 1960's. In 1965 ADR developed the first licensed software product independent of a hardware company. ADR was competing against a free IBM package originally developed by IBM customers. ADR patented their software in 1968. To stop sharing of their program, they provided it under an equipment lease in which payment was spread over the lifetime of the product. ADR thus retained ownership and could control resale and reuse.
Este modelo cambió en los años 60. En 1965 la ADR desarrolló el primer producto de software con licencia que era independiente de una compañía de hardware. ADR estaba compitiendo con un paquete gratuito de IBM desarrollado originalmente por los clientes de IBM. ADR patentó su software en 1968. Para dejar de compartir programas, los suministraron bajo un contrato de arrendamiento del equipo en el que el pago se extendía durante toda la vida del producto. ADR retenía así la propiedad y podía controlar la reventa y la reutilización.
In 1969 the US Department of Justice charged IBM with destroying businesses by bundling free software with IBM hardware. As a result of this suit, IBM unbundled its software; that is, software became independent products separate from hardware.
En 1969, el Departamento de Justicia de los Estados Unidos acusó a IBM de destruir negocios al combinar software libre con su hardware. Como resultado de este demanda, IBM quitó su software; es decir, el software se convirtió en un producto independiente y separado del hardware.
In 1968 Informatics introduced the first commercial killer-app and rapidly established the concept of the software product, the software company, and very high rates of return. Informatics developed the perpetual license which is now standard throughout the computer industry, wherein ownership is never transferred to the customer.
En 1968 la informática introdujo la primera aplicación comercial revolucionaria y estableció rápidamente el concepto de producto de software, compañía de software, y unas tasas muy altas de retorno. La informática desarrolló la licencia perpetua que es ahora estándar en toda la industria de los ordenadores, donde la propiedad nunca se transfiere al cliente.
Unix from a BSD Licensing Perspective
Unix desde una perspectiva de Licencia de BSD
AT&amp;T, who owned the original Unix implementation, was a publicly regulated monopoly tied up in anti-trust court; it was legally unable to sell a product into the software market. It was, however, able to provide it to academic institutions for the price of media.
AT&amp;T, que era el propietario de la implementación original de Unix, era un monopolio regulado públicamente que estaba atado a un tribunal antimonopolio; legalmente no podía vender un producto en el mercado de software. Sin embargo, pudo proporcionarlo a las instituciones académicas por el precio del soporte.

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