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<citation>GoldGab2005</citation> examines the business reasons for using open-source in greater detail. For organizations, the benefits of using FreeBSD components in their products include a shorter time to market, lower development costs and lower development risks.
Building with FreeBSD
Here are a few ways organizations have used FreeBSD:
As an upstream source for tested code for libraries and utilities.
By being <quote>downstream</quote> of the project, organizations leverage the new features, bug fixes and testing that the upstream code receives.
As an embedded OS (for example, for an OEM router and firewall device). In this model, organizations use a customized FreeBSD kernel and application program set along with a proprietary management layer for their device. OEMs benefit from new hardware support being added by the FreeBSD project upstream, and from the testing that the base system receives.
FreeBSD ships with a self-hosting development environment that allows easy creation of such configurations.
As a Unix compatible environment for the management functions of high-end storage and networking devices, running on a separate processor <quote>blade</quote>.
FreeBSD provides the tools for creating dedicated OS and application program images. Its implementation of a BSD unix API is mature and tested. FreeBSD can also provide a stable cross-development environment for the other components of the high-end device.
As a vehicle to get widespread testing and support from a worldwide team of developers for non-critical <quote>intellectual property</quote>.
In this model, organizations contribute useful infrastructural frameworks to the FreeBSD project (for example, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netgraph</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>). The widespread exposure that the code gets helps to quickly identify performance issues and bugs. The involvement of top-notch developers also leads to useful extensions to the infrastructure that the contributing organization also benefits from.
As a development environment supporting cross-development for embedded OSes like <link xlink:href="http://www.rtems.com/">RTEMS</link> and <link xlink:href="http://ecos.sourceware.org/">eCOS</link>.
There are many full-fledged development environments in the 24,000-strong collection of applications ported and packaged with FreeBSD.
As a way to support a Unix-like API in an otherwise proprietary OS, increasing its palatability for application developers.
Here parts of FreeBSD's kernel and application programs are <quote>ported</quote> to run alongside other tasks in the proprietary OS. The availability of a stable and well tested <trademark>Unix</trademark> API implementation can reduce the effort needed to port popular applications to the proprietary OS. As FreeBSD ships with high-quality documentation for its internals and has effective vulnerability management and release engineering processes, the costs of keeping upto-date are kept low.
Technologies
There are a large number of technologies supported by the FreeBSD project. A selection of these are listed below:
A complete system that can cross-host itself for <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/">many architectures:</link>
A modular symmetric multiprocessing capable kernel, with loadable kernel modules and a flexible and easy to use configuration system.
Support for emulation of <trademark>Linux</trademark> and SVR4 binaries at near machine speeds. Support for binary <trademark>Windows</trademark> (<acronym>NDIS</acronym>) network drivers.
Libraries for many programming tasks: archivers, FTP and HTTP support, thread support, in addition to a full <trademark>POSIX</trademark> like programming environment.
Security features: Mandatory Access Control (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>mac</refentrytitle><manvolnum>9</manvolnum></citerefentry>), jails (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>jail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>), <acronym>ACL</acronym>s, and in-kernel cryptographic device support.
Networking features: firewall-ing, QoS management, high-performance TCP/IP networking with support for many extensions.
FreeBSD's in-kernel Netgraph (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>netgraph</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>) framework allows kernel networking modules to be connected together in flexible ways.
Support for storage technologies: Fibre Channel, <acronym>SCSI</acronym>, software and hardware RAID, <acronym>ATA</acronym> and <acronym>SATA</acronym>.
FreeBSD supports a number of filesystems, and its native UFS2 filesystem supports soft updates, snapshots and very large filesystem sizes (16TB per filesystem) <citation>McKu1999</citation>.
FreeBSD's in-kernel <acronym>GEOM</acronym> (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>geom</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>) framework allows kernel storage modules to be composed in flexible ways.
Over 24,000 ported applications, both commercial and open-source, managed via the FreeBSD ports collection.
Organizational Structure
FreeBSD's organizational structure is non-hierarchical.
There are essentially two kinds of contributors to FreeBSD, general users of FreeBSD, and developers with write access (known as <firstterm>committers</firstterm> in the jargon) to the source base.

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(itstool) path: sect2/title
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