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Other optional, but recommended, packages are <package>print/gutenprint</package> and <package>print/hplip</package>, both of which add drivers and utilities for a variety of printers. Once installed, the <application>CUPS</application> configuration files can be found in the directory <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups</filename>.
Configuring the CUPS Print Server
After installation, a few files must be edited in order to configure the <application>CUPS</application> server. First, create or modify, as the case may be, the file <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename> and add the following information to set the proper permissions on all potential printer devices and to associate printers with the <systemitem class="groupname">cups</systemitem> user group:
add path 'unlpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'ulpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'lpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'usb/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable>.<replaceable>Z</replaceable>' mode 0660 group cups
Note that <replaceable>X</replaceable>, <replaceable>Y</replaceable>, and <replaceable>Z</replaceable> should be replaced with the target USB device listed in the <filename>/dev/usb</filename> directory that corresponds to the printer. To find the correct device, examine the output of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, where <filename>ugen<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></filename> lists the printer device, which is a symbolic link to a USB device in <filename>/dev/usb</filename>.
Next, add two lines to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> as follows:
These two entries will start the <application>CUPS</application> print server on boot and invoke the local devfs rule created above, respectively.
In order to enable <application>CUPS</application> printing under certain <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients, the line below should be uncommented in <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.types</filename> and <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.convs</filename>:
Once these changes have been made, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <application>CUPS</application> systems must both be restarted, either by rebooting the computer or issuing the following two commands in a root terminal:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/etc/rc.d/devfs restart</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/local/etc/rc.d/cupsd restart</userinput>
Configuring Printers on the CUPS Print Server
After the <application>CUPS</application> system has been installed and configured, the administrator can begin configuring the local printers attached to the <application>CUPS</application> print server. This part of the process is very similar, if not identical, to configuring <application>CUPS</application> printers on other <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-based operating systems, such as a <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> distribution.
The primary means for managing and administering the <application>CUPS</application> server is through the web-based interface, which can be found by launching a web browser and entering <uri xlink:href="http://localhost:631">http://localhost:631</uri> in the browser's URL bar. If the <application>CUPS</application> server is on another machine on the network, substitute the server's local <acronym>IP</acronym> address for <systemitem>localhost</systemitem>. The <application>CUPS</application> web interface is fairly self-explanatory, as there are sections for managing printers and print jobs, authorizing users, and more. Additionally, on the right-hand side of the Administration screen are several check-boxes allowing easy access to commonly-changed settings, such as whether to share published printers connected to the system, whether to allow remote administration of the <application>CUPS</application> server, and whether to allow users additional access and privileges to the printers and print jobs.
Adding a printer is generally as easy as clicking <quote>Add Printer</quote> at the Administration screen of the <application>CUPS</application> web interface, or clicking one of the <quote>New Printers Found</quote> buttons also at the Administration screen. When presented with the <quote>Device</quote> drop-down box, simply select the desired locally-attached printer, and then continue through the process. If one has added the <package>print/gutenprint-cups</package> or <package>print/hplip</package> ports or packages as referenced above, then additional print drivers will be available in the subsequent screens that might provide more stability or features.
Configuring CUPS Clients
Once the <application>CUPS</application> server has been configured and printers have been added and published to the network, the next step is to configure the clients, or the machines that are going to access the <application>CUPS</application> server. If one has a single desktop machine that is acting as both server and client, then much of this information may not be needed.
<trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> Clients
<application>CUPS</application> will also need to be installed on your <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> clients. Once <application>CUPS</application> is installed on the clients, then <application>CUPS</application> printers that are shared across the network are often automatically discovered by the printer managers for various desktop environments such as <application>GNOME</application> or <application>KDE</application>. Alternatively, one can access the local <application>CUPS</application> interface on the client machine at <uri xlink:href="http://localhost:631">http://localhost:631</uri> and click on <quote>Add Printer</quote> in the Administration section. When presented with the <quote>Device</quote> drop-down box, simply select the networked <application>CUPS</application> printer, if it was automatically discovered, or select <literal>ipp</literal> or <literal>http</literal> and enter the <acronym>IPP</acronym> or <acronym>HTTP</acronym> <acronym>URI</acronym> of the networked <application>CUPS</application> printer, usually in one of the two following syntaxes:
If the <application>CUPS</application> clients have difficulty finding other <application>CUPS</application> printers shared across the network, sometimes it is helpful to add or create a file <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/client.conf</filename> with a single entry as follows:
ServerName <replaceable>server-ip</replaceable>
In this case, <replaceable>server-ip</replaceable> would be replaced by the local <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <application>CUPS</application> server on the network.
<trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> Clients
Versions of <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> prior to XP did not have the capability to natively network with <acronym>IPP</acronym>-based printers. However, <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> XP and later versions do have this capability. Therefore, to add a <application>CUPS</application> printer in these versions of <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> is quite easy. Generally, the <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> administrator will run the <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> <literal>Add Printer</literal> wizard, select <literal>Network Printer</literal> and then enter the <acronym>URI</acronym> in the following syntax:
If one has an older version of <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> without native <acronym>IPP</acronym> printing support, then the general means of connecting to a <application>CUPS</application> printer is to use <package>net/samba413</package> and <application>CUPS</application> together, which is a topic outside the scope of this chapter.
CUPS Troubleshooting
Difficulties with <application>CUPS</application> often lies in permissions. First, double check the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> permissions as outlined above. Next, check the actual permissions of the devices created in the file system. It is also helpful to make sure your user is a member of the <systemitem class="groupname">cups</systemitem> group. If the permissions check boxes in the Administration section of the <application>CUPS</application> web interface do not seem to be working, another fix might be to manually backup the main <application>CUPS</application> configuration file located at <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</filename> and edit the various configuration options and try different combinations of configuration options. One sample <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</filename> to test is listed below. Please note that this sample <filename>cupsd.conf</filename> sacrifices security for easier configuration; once the administrator successfully connects to the <application>CUPS</application> server and configures the clients, it is advisable to revisit this configuration file and begin locking down access.
# Log general information in error_log - change "info" to "debug" for
# troubleshooting...
LogLevel info

# Administrator user group...
SystemGroup wheel

# Listen for connections on Port 631.
Port 631
#Listen localhost:631
Listen /var/run/cups.sock

# Show shared printers on the local network.
Browsing On
BrowseOrder allow,deny
#BrowseAllow @LOCAL
BrowseAllow 192.168.1.* # change to local LAN settings
BrowseAddress 192.168.1.* # change to local LAN settings

# Default authentication type, when authentication is required...
DefaultAuthType Basic
DefaultEncryption Never # comment this line to allow encryption

# Allow access to the server from any machine on the LAN
&lt;Location /&gt;
Order allow,deny
#Allow localhost
Allow 192.168.1.* # change to local LAN settings

# Allow access to the admin pages from any machine on the LAN
&lt;Location /admin&gt;
#Encryption Required
Order allow,deny
#Allow localhost
Allow 192.168.1.* # change to local LAN settings

# Allow access to configuration files from any machine on the LAN
&lt;Location /admin/conf&gt;
AuthType Basic
Require user @SYSTEM
Order allow,deny
#Allow localhost
Allow 192.168.1.* # change to local LAN settings

# Set the default printer/job policies...
&lt;Policy default&gt;
# Job-related operations must be done by the owner or an administrator...
&lt;Limit Send-Document Send-URI Hold-Job Release-Job Restart-Job Purge-Jobs \
Set-Job-Attributes Create-Job-Subscription Renew-Subscription Cancel-Subscription \
Get-Notifications Reprocess-Job Cancel-Current-Job Suspend-Current-Job Resume-Job \
Require user @OWNER @SYSTEM
Order deny,allow

# All administration operations require an administrator to authenticate...
&lt;Limit Pause-Printer Resume-Printer Set-Printer-Attributes Enable-Printer \
Disable-Printer Pause-Printer-After-Current-Job Hold-New-Jobs Release-Held-New-Jobs \
Deactivate-Printer Activate-Printer Restart-Printer Shutdown-Printer Startup-Printer \
Promote-Job Schedule-Job-After CUPS-Add-Printer CUPS-Delete-Printer CUPS-Add-Class \
CUPS-Delete-Class CUPS-Accept-Jobs CUPS-Reject-Jobs CUPS-Set-Default&gt;
AuthType Basic
Require user @SYSTEM
Order deny,allow

# Only the owner or an administrator can cancel or authenticate a job...
&lt;Limit Cancel-Job CUPS-Authenticate-Job&gt;
Require user @OWNER @SYSTEM
Order deny,allow

&lt;Limit All&gt;
Order deny,allow


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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/para
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/cups.pot, string 33