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<primary>CUPS</primary>
<application>CUPS</application>, the Common UNIX Printing System, provides a portable printing layer for <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-based operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Products to promote a standard printing solution for all <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> vendors and users.
<application>CUPS</application> uses the Internet Printing Protocol (<acronym>IPP</acronym>) as the basis for managing print jobs and queues. The Line Printer Daemon (<acronym>LPD</acronym>), Server Message Block (<acronym>SMB</acronym>), and AppSocket (aka JetDirect) protocols are also supported with reduced functionality. <application>CUPS</application> adds network printer browsing and PostScript Printer Description (<acronym>PPD</acronym>) based printing options to support real-world printing under <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>. As a result, <application>CUPS</application> is ideally-suited for sharing and accessing printers in mixed environments of FreeBSD, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark> X, or <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>.
The main site for <application>CUPS</application> is <uri xlink:href="http://www.cups.org/">http://www.cups.org/</uri>.
Installing the CUPS Print Server
To install <application>CUPS</application> using a precompiled binary, issue the following command from a root terminal:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install cups</userinput>
Other optional, but recommended, packages are <package>print/gutenprint</package> and <package>print/hplip</package>, both of which add drivers and utilities for a variety of printers. Once installed, the <application>CUPS</application> configuration files can be found in the directory <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups</filename>.
Configuring the CUPS Print Server
After installation, a few files must be edited in order to configure the <application>CUPS</application> server. First, create or modify, as the case may be, the file <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename> and add the following information to set the proper permissions on all potential printer devices and to associate printers with the <systemitem class="groupname">cups</systemitem> user group:
[system=10]
add path 'unlpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'ulpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'lpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'usb/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable>.<replaceable>Z</replaceable>' mode 0660 group cups
Note that <replaceable>X</replaceable>, <replaceable>Y</replaceable>, and <replaceable>Z</replaceable> should be replaced with the target USB device listed in the <filename>/dev/usb</filename> directory that corresponds to the printer. To find the correct device, examine the output of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, where <filename>ugen<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></filename> lists the printer device, which is a symbolic link to a USB device in <filename>/dev/usb</filename>.
Next, add two lines to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> as follows:
cupsd_enable="YES"
devfs_system_ruleset="system"
These two entries will start the <application>CUPS</application> print server on boot and invoke the local devfs rule created above, respectively.
In order to enable <application>CUPS</application> printing under certain <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients, the line below should be uncommented in <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.types</filename> and <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.convs</filename>:
application/octet-stream
Once these changes have been made, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <application>CUPS</application> systems must both be restarted, either by rebooting the computer or issuing the following two commands in a root terminal:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/etc/rc.d/devfs restart</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/local/etc/rc.d/cupsd restart</userinput>
Configuring Printers on the CUPS Print Server
After the <application>CUPS</application> system has been installed and configured, the administrator can begin configuring the local printers attached to the <application>CUPS</application> print server. This part of the process is very similar, if not identical, to configuring <application>CUPS</application> printers on other <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-based operating systems, such as a <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> distribution.
The primary means for managing and administering the <application>CUPS</application> server is through the web-based interface, which can be found by launching a web browser and entering <uri xlink:href="http://localhost:631">http://localhost:631</uri> in the browser's URL bar. If the <application>CUPS</application> server is on another machine on the network, substitute the server's local <acronym>IP</acronym> address for <systemitem>localhost</systemitem>. The <application>CUPS</application> web interface is fairly self-explanatory, as there are sections for managing printers and print jobs, authorizing users, and more. Additionally, on the right-hand side of the Administration screen are several check-boxes allowing easy access to commonly-changed settings, such as whether to share published printers connected to the system, whether to allow remote administration of the <application>CUPS</application> server, and whether to allow users additional access and privileges to the printers and print jobs.
Adding a printer is generally as easy as clicking <quote>Add Printer</quote> at the Administration screen of the <application>CUPS</application> web interface, or clicking one of the <quote>New Printers Found</quote> buttons also at the Administration screen. When presented with the <quote>Device</quote> drop-down box, simply select the desired locally-attached printer, and then continue through the process. If one has added the <package>print/gutenprint-cups</package> or <package>print/hplip</package> ports or packages as referenced above, then additional print drivers will be available in the subsequent screens that might provide more stability or features.
Configuring CUPS Clients
Once the <application>CUPS</application> server has been configured and printers have been added and published to the network, the next step is to configure the clients, or the machines that are going to access the <application>CUPS</application> server. If one has a single desktop machine that is acting as both server and client, then much of this information may not be needed.
<trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> Clients
<application>CUPS</application> will also need to be installed on your <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> clients. Once <application>CUPS</application> is installed on the clients, then <application>CUPS</application> printers that are shared across the network are often automatically discovered by the printer managers for various desktop environments such as <application>GNOME</application> or <application>KDE</application>. Alternatively, one can access the local <application>CUPS</application> interface on the client machine at <uri xlink:href="http://localhost:631">http://localhost:631</uri> and click on <quote>Add Printer</quote> in the Administration section. When presented with the <quote>Device</quote> drop-down box, simply select the networked <application>CUPS</application> printer, if it was automatically discovered, or select <literal>ipp</literal> or <literal>http</literal> and enter the <acronym>IPP</acronym> or <acronym>HTTP</acronym> <acronym>URI</acronym> of the networked <application>CUPS</application> printer, usually in one of the two following syntaxes:
ipp://<replaceable>server-name-or-ip</replaceable>/printers/<replaceable>printername</replaceable>
http://<replaceable>server-name-or-ip</replaceable>:631/printers/<replaceable>printername</replaceable>
If the <application>CUPS</application> clients have difficulty finding other <application>CUPS</application> printers shared across the network, sometimes it is helpful to add or create a file <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/client.conf</filename> with a single entry as follows:
ServerName <replaceable>server-ip</replaceable>

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(itstool) path: sect1/para
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article.translate.xml:126
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articles/cups.pot, string 26