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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cups/article.xml 53872 2020-02-06 19:30:04Z carlavilla $
An article about configuring CUPS on FreeBSD.
An Introduction to the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS)
<application>CUPS</application>, the Common UNIX Printing System, provides a portable printing layer for <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-based operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Products to promote a standard printing solution for all <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> vendors and users.
<application>CUPS</application> uses the Internet Printing Protocol (<acronym>IPP</acronym>) as the basis for managing print jobs and queues. The Line Printer Daemon (<acronym>LPD</acronym>), Server Message Block (<acronym>SMB</acronym>), and AppSocket (aka JetDirect) protocols are also supported with reduced functionality. <application>CUPS</application> adds network printer browsing and PostScript Printer Description (<acronym>PPD</acronym>) based printing options to support real-world printing under <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>. As a result, <application>CUPS</application> is ideally-suited for sharing and accessing printers in mixed environments of FreeBSD, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark> X, or <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>.
The main site for <application>CUPS</application> is <uri xlink:href=""></uri>.
Installing the CUPS Print Server
To install <application>CUPS</application> using a precompiled binary, issue the following command from a root terminal:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install cups</userinput>
Other optional, but recommended, packages are <package>print/gutenprint</package> and <package>print/hplip</package>, both of which add drivers and utilities for a variety of printers. Once installed, the <application>CUPS</application> configuration files can be found in the directory <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups</filename>.
Configuring the CUPS Print Server
After installation, a few files must be edited in order to configure the <application>CUPS</application> server. First, create or modify, as the case may be, the file <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename> and add the following information to set the proper permissions on all potential printer devices and to associate printers with the <systemitem class="groupname">cups</systemitem> user group:
add path 'unlpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'ulpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'lpt*' mode 0660 group cups
add path 'usb/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable>.<replaceable>Z</replaceable>' mode 0660 group cups
Note that <replaceable>X</replaceable>, <replaceable>Y</replaceable>, and <replaceable>Z</replaceable> should be replaced with the target USB device listed in the <filename>/dev/usb</filename> directory that corresponds to the printer. To find the correct device, examine the output of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, where <filename>ugen<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></filename> lists the printer device, which is a symbolic link to a USB device in <filename>/dev/usb</filename>.
Next, add two lines to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> as follows:
These two entries will start the <application>CUPS</application> print server on boot and invoke the local devfs rule created above, respectively.
In order to enable <application>CUPS</application> printing under certain <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients, the line below should be uncommented in <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.types</filename> and <filename>/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.convs</filename>:
Once these changes have been made, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <application>CUPS</application> systems must both be restarted, either by rebooting the computer or issuing the following two commands in a root terminal:


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