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<personname><firstname>Greg</firstname><surname>Lehey</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Phenom, AMD Sempron, AMD Turion, Athlon, Élan, Opteron, and PCnet are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
SPARC, SPARC64, and UltraSPARC are trademarks of SPARC International, Inc in the United States and other countries. SPARC International, Inc owns all of the SPARC trademarks and under licensing agreements allows the proper use of these trademarks by its members.
Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.xml 51926 2018-06-29 07:33:14Z eadler $
In the open source world, the word <quote>Linux</quote> is almost synonymous with <quote>Operating System</quote>, but it is not the only open source <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system.
So what is the secret? Why is BSD not better known? This white paper addresses these and other questions.
Throughout this paper, differences between BSD and Linux will be noted <emphasis>like this</emphasis>.
What is BSD?
BSD stands for <quote>Berkeley Software Distribution</quote>. It is the name of distributions of source code from the University of California, Berkeley, which were originally extensions to AT&amp;T's Research <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system. Several open source operating system projects are based on a release of this source code known as 4.4BSD-Lite. In addition, they comprise a number of packages from other Open Source projects, including notably the GNU project. The overall operating system comprises:
The BSD kernel, which handles process scheduling, memory management, symmetric multi-processing (SMP), device drivers, etc.
The C library, the base API for the system.
<emphasis>The BSD C library is based on code from Berkeley, not the GNU project.</emphasis>
Utilities such as shells, file utilities, compilers and linkers.
<emphasis>Some of the utilities are derived from the GNU project, others are not.</emphasis>
The X Window system, which handles graphical display.
The X Window system used in most versions of BSD is maintained by the <link xlink:href="">X.Org project</link>. FreeBSD allows the user to choose from a variety of desktop environments, such as <application>Gnome</application>, <application>KDE</application>, or <application>Xfce</application>; and lightweight window managers like <application>Openbox</application>, <application>Fluxbox</application>, or <application>Awesome</application>.
Many other programs and utilities.
What, a real <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>?
The BSD operating systems are not clones, but open source derivatives of AT&amp;T's Research <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system, which is also the ancestor of the modern <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> System V. This may surprise you. How could that happen when AT&amp;T has never released its code as open source?
It is true that AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> is not open source, and in a copyright sense BSD is very definitely <emphasis>not</emphasis> <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, but on the other hand, AT&amp;T has imported sources from other projects, noticeably the Computer Sciences Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California in Berkeley, CA. Starting in 1976, the CSRG started releasing tapes of their software, calling them <emphasis>Berkeley Software Distribution</emphasis> or <emphasis>BSD</emphasis>.
Initial BSD releases consisted mainly of user programs, but that changed dramatically when the CSRG landed a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to upgrade the communications protocols on their network, ARPANET. The new protocols were known as the <emphasis>Internet Protocols</emphasis>, later <emphasis>TCP/IP</emphasis> after the most important protocols. The first widely distributed implementation was part of 4.2BSD, in 1982.
In the course of the 1980s, a number of new workstation companies sprang up. Many preferred to license <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> rather than developing operating systems for themselves. In particular, Sun Microsystems licensed <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> and implemented a version of 4.2BSD, which they called <trademark>SunOS</trademark>. When AT&amp;T themselves were allowed to sell <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> commercially, they started with a somewhat bare-bones implementation called System III, to be quickly followed by System V. The System V code base did not include networking, so all implementations included additional software from the BSD, including the TCP/IP software, but also utilities such as the <emphasis>csh</emphasis> shell and the <emphasis>vi</emphasis> editor. Collectively, these enhancements were known as the <emphasis>Berkeley Extensions</emphasis>.


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