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(itstool) path: abstract/para
Throughout this paper, differences between BSD and Linux will be noted <emphasis>like this</emphasis>.
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Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
<email>grog@FreeBSD.org</email> <email>grog@FreeBSD.org</email>
<personname><firstname>Greg</firstname><surname>Lehey</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation> <personname><firstname>Greg</firstname><surname>Lehey</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation. FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Phenom, AMD Sempron, AMD Turion, Athlon, Élan, Opteron, and PCnet are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Phenom, AMD Sempron, AMD Turion, Athlon, Élan, Opteron, and PCnet are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
SPARC, SPARC64, and UltraSPARC are trademarks of SPARC International, Inc in the United States and other countries. SPARC International, Inc owns all of the SPARC trademarks and under licensing agreements allows the proper use of these trademarks by its members. SPARC, SPARC64, and UltraSPARC are trademarks of SPARC International, Inc in the United States and other countries. SPARC International, Inc owns all of the SPARC trademarks and under licensing agreements allows the proper use of these trademarks by its members.
Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.xml 51926 2018-06-29 07:33:14Z eadler $ $FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.xml 51926 2018-06-29 07:33:14Z eadler $
In the open source world, the word <quote>Linux</quote> is almost synonymous with <quote>Operating System</quote>, but it is not the only open source <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system. No mundo do código aberto, a palavra <quote>Linux</quote> é praticamente sinônimo de <quote>Sistema Operacional</quote>, mas ele não é o único sistema operacional <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> de código aberto.
So what is the secret? Why is BSD not better known? This white paper addresses these and other questions. Então, qual é o segredo? Por que o BSD não é mais conhecido? Este artigo aborda esta e outras questões.
Throughout this paper, differences between BSD and Linux will be noted <emphasis>like this</emphasis>. Ao longo deste artigo as diferenças entre o BSD e o Linux serão destacadas <emphasis>desta forma</emphasis>.
What is BSD? O que é o BSD?
BSD stands for <quote>Berkeley Software Distribution</quote>. It is the name of distributions of source code from the University of California, Berkeley, which were originally extensions to AT&amp;T's Research <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system. Several open source operating system projects are based on a release of this source code known as 4.4BSD-Lite. In addition, they comprise a number of packages from other Open Source projects, including notably the GNU project. The overall operating system comprises: BSD é a sigla para <quote>Berkeley Software Distribution</quote>. É o nome do código fonte distribuído pela Universidade da Califórnia, Berkeley, que era originalmente uma extensão do <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> desenvolvido pela área de pesquisa da AT&amp;T. Diversos projetos de sistemas operacionais de código aberto foram baseados em uma versão deste código, conhecido como 4.4BSD-Lite. Além disso, eles incluem vários pacotes de outros projetos de código aberto, com destaque para os do projeto GNU. O sistema operacional geralmente abrange:
The BSD kernel, which handles process scheduling, memory management, symmetric multi-processing (SMP), device drivers, etc. O kernel BSD, que lida com o agendamento de processos, gerenciamento de memória, multi processamento simétrico (symmetric multi-processing ou SMP), drivers de dispositivos, etc.
The C library, the base API for the system. A biblioteca C, a API base do sistema.
<emphasis>The BSD C library is based on code from Berkeley, not the GNU project.</emphasis> <emphasis>A biblioteca C do BSD é baseada no código de Berkeley, não no projeto GNU.</emphasis>
Utilities such as shells, file utilities, compilers and linkers. Utilitários como shells, gerenciadores de arquivos, compiladores e linkers (conversores de arquivos compilados em executáveis).
<emphasis>Some of the utilities are derived from the GNU project, others are not.</emphasis> <emphasis>Alguns utilitários são derivados do projeto GNU, outros não são.</emphasis>
The X Window system, which handles graphical display. O sistema X Window, que gerencia a interface gráfica.
The X Window system used in most versions of BSD is maintained by the <link xlink:href="http://www.X.org/">X.Org project</link>. FreeBSD allows the user to choose from a variety of desktop environments, such as <application>Gnome</application>, <application>KDE</application>, or <application>Xfce</application>; and lightweight window managers like <application>Openbox</application>, <application>Fluxbox</application>, or <application>Awesome</application>. O sistema X Window usado na maioria das versões do BSD é mantido pelo <link xlink:href="http://www.X.org/">Projeto X.Org</link>. O FreeBSD permite ao usuário escolher a partir de uma variedade de ambientes de desktop, tais como o <application>Gnome</application>, <application>KDE</application>, ou <application>Xfce</application>; e gerenciadores gráficos (gerenciadores de janelas) mais leves, como <application>Openbox</application>, <application>Fluxbox</application>, ou <application>Awesome</application>.
Many other programs and utilities. Diversos outros programas e utilitários.
What, a real <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>? O que, um verdadeiro <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>?
The BSD operating systems are not clones, but open source derivatives of AT&amp;T's Research <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system, which is also the ancestor of the modern <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> System V. This may surprise you. How could that happen when AT&amp;T has never released its code as open source? Os sistemas operacionais BSD não são cópias ou clones, mas sim derivações de código aberto do sistema operacional <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> da AT&amp;T, que também é o ancestral do moderno <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> System V. Isto pode surpreendê-lo. Como isto é possível, uma vez que a AT&amp;T nunca liberou seu código como código aberto?
It is true that AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> is not open source, and in a copyright sense BSD is very definitely <emphasis>not</emphasis> <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, but on the other hand, AT&amp;T has imported sources from other projects, noticeably the Computer Sciences Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California in Berkeley, CA. Starting in 1976, the CSRG started releasing tapes of their software, calling them <emphasis>Berkeley Software Distribution</emphasis> or <emphasis>BSD</emphasis>. É verdade que o <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> da AT&amp;T não é um sistema de código aberto e no sentido de licenciamento o BSD definitivamente <emphasis>não é</emphasis> <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, mas por outro lado a AT&amp;T importou fontes de outros projetos, principalmente do Grupo de Pesquisa de Ciências da Computação (Computer Sciences Research Group ou CSRG) da Universidade da Califórnia em Berkeley, CA. A partir de 1976, o CSRG começou a liberar fitas de seu software, chamando ele de <emphasis>Berkeley Software Distribution</emphasis> ou <emphasis>BSD</emphasis>.
Initial BSD releases consisted mainly of user programs, but that changed dramatically when the CSRG landed a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to upgrade the communications protocols on their network, ARPANET. The new protocols were known as the <emphasis>Internet Protocols</emphasis>, later <emphasis>TCP/IP</emphasis> after the most important protocols. The first widely distributed implementation was part of 4.2BSD, in 1982. As primeiras distribuições do BSD consistiam principalmente em programas de usuários mas isso mudou radicalmente quando o CSRG firmou um contrato com a Agência de Pesquisa de Projetos de Defesa Avançados (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ou DARPA) para atualizar os protocolos de comunicação de sua rede, a ARPANET. Os novos protocolos ficaram conhecidos como <emphasis>Internet Protocols</emphasis>, posteriormente <emphasis>TCP/IP</emphasis> em virtude dos protocolos mais importantes. A primeira implementação amplamente distribuída foi parte do 4.2BSD, em 1982.
In the course of the 1980s, a number of new workstation companies sprang up. Many preferred to license <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> rather than developing operating systems for themselves. In particular, Sun Microsystems licensed <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> and implemented a version of 4.2BSD, which they called <trademark>SunOS</trademark>. When AT&amp;T themselves were allowed to sell <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> commercially, they started with a somewhat bare-bones implementation called System III, to be quickly followed by System V. The System V code base did not include networking, so all implementations included additional software from the BSD, including the TCP/IP software, but also utilities such as the <emphasis>csh</emphasis> shell and the <emphasis>vi</emphasis> editor. Collectively, these enhancements were known as the <emphasis>Berkeley Extensions</emphasis>. Durante a década de 80 surgiram muitas empresas produtoras de estações de trabalho. A maioria preferiu licenciar o <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> ao invés de desenvolver seus próprios sistemas operacionais. Em particular, a Sun Microsystems licenciou o <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> e implementou uma versão do 4.2BSD, a qual eles chamaram de <trademark>SunOS</trademark>. Quando a própria AT&amp;T começou a comercializar o <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, eles começaram com uma implementação de certa forma simples chamada de System III, que logo transformou-se no System V. O código base do System V não incluía comunicação em rede, então todas as implementações incluíram software adicional do BSD, inclusive o software TCP/IP, e também utilitários como o shell <emphasis>csh</emphasis> e o editor <emphasis>vi</emphasis>. Estes aprimoramentos ficaram conhecidos como <emphasis>Berkeley Extensions</emphasis>.

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(itstool) path: abstract/para
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