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There are two general exceptions to requiring commit approval during the release cycle. The first is any change that needs to be committed by the Release Engineer in order to proceed with the day-to-day workflow of the release cycle, the other is security fixes that may occur during the release cycle.
Once the code freeze is in effect, the next build from the branch is labeled <literal>BETA1</literal>. This is done by updating the <varname>BRANCH</varname> value in <filename>sys/conf/newvers.sh</filename> from <literal>PRERELEASE</literal> to <literal>BETA1</literal>.
Once this is done, the first set of <literal>BETA</literal> builds are started. Subsequent <literal>BETA</literal> builds do not require updates to any files other than <filename>sys/conf/newvers.sh</filename>, incrementing the <literal>BETA</literal> build number.
Creating the <literal>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/</literal> Branch
When the first <literal>RC</literal> (Release Candidate) build is ready to begin, the <literal>releng/</literal> branch is created. This is a multi-step process that must be done in a specific order, in order to avoid anomalies such as overlaps with <varname>__FreeBSD_version</varname> values, for example. The paths listed below are relative to the repository root. The order of commits and what to change are:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn cp ^/<literal>stable/<replaceable>12</replaceable>/</literal> <literal>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/</literal></userinput>
<filename>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/sys/conf/newvers.sh</filename>
Change <literal>BETA<replaceable>X</replaceable></literal> to <literal>RC1</literal>
<filename>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/sys/sys/param.h</filename>
Update <varname>__FreeBSD_version</varname>
<filename>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/etc/pkg/FreeBSD.conf</filename>
Replace <literal>latest</literal> with <literal>quarterly</literal> as the default package repository location
<filename>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/release/pkg_repos/release-dvd.conf</filename>
Update <literal>BETA<replaceable>X</replaceable></literal> with <literal>PRERELEASE</literal>
<filename>stable/<replaceable>12</replaceable>/sys/sys/param.h</filename>
<filename>svnadmin/conf/approvers</filename>
Add a new approvers line for the releng branch as was done for the stable branch
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propdel -R svn:mergeinfo <literal>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/</literal></userinput>
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn commit <literal>releng/<replaceable>12.0</replaceable>/</literal></userinput>
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn commit <literal>stable/<replaceable>12</replaceable>/</literal></userinput>
Now that two new <varname>__FreeBSD_version</varname> values exist, also update <filename>head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/versions/chapter.xml</filename> in the Documentation Project repository.
After the first <literal>RC</literal> build has completed and tested, the <literal>stable/</literal> branch can be <quote>thawed</quote> by removing (or commenting) the ^/<literal>stable/<replaceable>12</replaceable>/</literal> entry in <filename>svnadmin/conf/approvers</filename>.
Following the availability of the first <literal>RC</literal>, FreeBSD Bugmeister Team should be emailed to add the new FreeBSD <literal>-RELEASE</literal> to the <literal>versions</literal> available in the drop-down menu shown in the bug tracker.
Building FreeBSD Installation Media
This section describes the general procedures producing FreeBSD development snapshots and releases.
Release Build Scripts
This section describes the build scripts used by FreeBSD Release Engineering Team to produce development snapshots and releases.
The <filename>release.sh</filename> Script
Prior to FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, <filename>src/release/Makefile</filename> was updated to support <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and the <filename>src/release/generate-release.sh</filename> script was introduced as a wrapper to automate invoking the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>release</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> targets.
Prior to FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE, <filename>src/release/release.sh</filename> was introduced, which heavily based on <filename>src/release/generate-release.sh</filename> included support to specify configuration files to override various options and environment variables. Support for configuration files provided support for cross building each architecture for a release by specifying a separate configuration file for each invocation.
As a brief example of using <filename>src/release/release.sh</filename> to build a single release in <filename class="directory">/scratch</filename>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/bin/sh /usr/src/release/release.sh</userinput>
As a brief example of using <filename>src/release/release.sh</filename> to build a single, cross-built release using a different target directory, create a custom <filename>release.conf</filename> containing:

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: row/entry
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ignore-same, read-only
Source string location
article.translate.xml:1082
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/freebsd-releng.pot, string 216