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How to reserve space for journaling during a new installation of FreeBSD.
How to load and enable the <literal>geom_journal</literal> module (or build support for it in your custom kernel).
How to convert your existing file systems to utilize journaling, and what options to use in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> to mount them.
How to implement journaling in new (empty) partitions.
How to troubleshoot common problems associated with journaling.
Before reading this article, you should be able to:
Understand basic <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> and FreeBSD concepts.
Be familiar with the installation procedure of FreeBSD and the <application>sysinstall</application> utility.
The procedure described here is intended for preparing a new installation where no actual user data is stored on the disk yet. While it is possible to modify and extend this procedure for systems already in production, you should <emphasis>backup</emphasis> all important data before doing so. Messing around with disks and partitions at a low level can lead to fatal mistakes and data loss.
Understanding Journaling in FreeBSD
The journaling provided by GEOM in FreeBSD 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable> is not file system specific (unlike for example the ext3 file system in <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>) but is functioning at the block level. Though this means it can be applied to different file systems, for FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE, it can only be used on UFS2.
This functionality is provided by loading the <filename>geom_journal.ko</filename> module into the kernel (or building it into a custom kernel) and using the <command>gjournal</command> command to configure the file systems. In general, you would like to journal large file systems, like <filename>/usr</filename>. You will need however (see the following section) to reserve some free disk space.
When a file system is journaled, some disk space is needed to keep the journal itself. The disk space that holds the actual data is referred to as the <emphasis>data provider</emphasis>, while the one that holds the journal is referred to as the <emphasis>journal provider</emphasis>. The data and journal providers need to be on different partitions when journaling an existing (non-empty) partition. When journaling a new partition, you have the option to use a single provider for both data and journal. In any case, the <command>gjournal</command> command combines both providers to create the final journaled file system. For example:
You wish to journal your <filename>/usr</filename> file system, stored in <filename>/dev/ad0s1f</filename> (which already contains data).
You reserved some free disk space in a partition in <filename>/dev/ad0s1g</filename>.
Using <command>gjournal</command>, a new <filename>/dev/ad0s1f.journal</filename> device is created where <filename>/dev/ad0s1f</filename> is the data provider, and <filename>/dev/ad0s1g</filename> is the journal provider. This new device is then used for all subsequent file operations.
The amount of disk space you need to reserve for the journal provider depends on the usage load of the file system and not on the size of the data provider. For example on a typical office desktop, a 1 GB journal provider for the <filename>/usr</filename> file system will suffice, while a machine that deals with heavy disk I/O (i.e. video editing) may need more. A kernel panic will occur if the journal space is exhausted before it has a chance to be committed.
The journal sizes suggested here, are highly unlikely to cause problems in typical desktop use (such as web browsing, word processing and playback of media files). If your workload includes intense disk activity, use the following rule for maximum reliability: Your RAM size should fit in 30% of the journal provider's space. For example, if your system has 1 GB RAM, create an approximately 3.3 GB journal provider. (Multiply your RAM size with 3.3 to obtain the size of the journal).
For more information about journaling, please read the manual page of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gjournal</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Steps During the Installation of FreeBSD
Reserving Space for Journaling
A typical desktop machine usually has one hard disk that stores both the OS and user data. Arguably, the default partitioning scheme selected by <application>sysinstall</application> is more or less suitable: A desktop machine does not need a large <filename>/var</filename> partition, while <filename>/usr</filename> is allocated the bulk of the disk space, since user data and a lot of packages are installed into its subdirectories.
The default partitioning (the one obtained by pressing <keycap>A</keycap> at the FreeBSD partition editor, called <application>Disklabel</application>) does not leave any unallocated space. Each partition that will be journaled, requires another partition for the journal. Since the <filename>/usr</filename> partition is the largest, it makes sense to shrink this partition slightly, to obtain the space required for journaling.
In our example, an 80 GB disk is used. The following screenshot shows the default partitions created by <application>Disklabel</application> during installation:
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external ref='disklabel1' md5='__failed__'
If this is more or less what you need, it is very easy to adjust for journaling. Simply use the arrow keys to move the highlight to the <filename>/usr</filename> partition and press <keycap>D</keycap> to delete it.
Now, move the highlight to the disk name at the top of the screen and press <keycap>C</keycap> to create a new partition for <filename>/usr</filename>. This new partition should be smaller by 1 GB (if you intend to journal <filename>/usr</filename> only), or 2 GB (if you intend to journal both <filename>/usr</filename> and <filename>/var</filename>). From the pop-up that appears, opt to create a file system, and type <filename>/usr</filename> as the mount point.
Should you journal the <filename>/var</filename> partition? Normally, journaling makes sense on quite large partitions. You may decide not to journal <filename>/var</filename>, although doing so on a typical desktop will cause no harm. If the file system is lightly used (quite probable for a desktop) you may wish to allocate less disk space for its journal.
In our example, we journal both <filename>/usr</filename> and <filename>/var</filename>. You may of course adjust the procedure to your own needs.
To keep things as easy going as possible, we are going to use <application>sysinstall</application> to create the partitions required for journaling. However, during installation, <application>sysinstall</application> insists on asking a mount point for each partition you create. At this point, you do not have any mount points for the partitions that will hold the journals, and in reality you <emphasis>do not even need them</emphasis>. These are not partitions that we are ever going to mount somewhere.
To avoid these problems with <application>sysinstall</application>, we are going to create the journal partitions as swap space. Swap is never mounted, and <application>sysinstall</application> has no problem creating as many swap partitions as needed. After the first reboot, <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> will have to be edited, and the extra swap space entries removed.

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