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Encrypted data is uniformly distributed, i.e., has maximal entropy per symbol;
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Context English Spanish State
_ translator-credits Sergio Carlavilla carlavilla@FreeBSD.org, 2019
Independent Verification of IPsec Functionality in FreeBSD Verificación independiente de la funcionalidad de IPsec en FreeBSD
<email>honig@sprynet.com</email> <email>honig@sprynet.com</email>
<personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation> <personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
1999-05-03 1999-05-03
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$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ipsec-must/article.xml 52227 2018-09-06 01:30:47Z ebrandi $ $FreeBSD$
You installed IPsec and it seems to be working. How do you know? I describe a method for experimentally verifying that IPsec is working. Instaló IPsec y parece estar funcionando. ¿Cómo lo sabe? Describo un método para verificar de forma experimental que IPsec está funcionando.
The Problem El problema
First, lets assume you have <link linkend="ipsec-install"> installed <emphasis>IPsec</emphasis></link>. How do you know it is <link linkend="caveat">working</link>? Sure, your connection will not work if it is misconfigured, and it will work when you finally get it right. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will list it. But can you independently confirm it? Primero, asumamos que ha <link linkend="ipsec-install">instalado <emphasis>IPsec</emphasis></link>. ¿Cómo sabe que está <link linkend="caveat">funcionando</link>? Claro, su conexión no funcionará si está mal configurada, y funcionará cuando finalmente lo haga bien. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> la listará. ¿Pero puede confirmarlo de forma independiente?
The Solution La solución
First, some crypto-relevant info theory: Primero, alguna información teórica relevante sobre criptografía:
Encrypted data is uniformly distributed, i.e., has maximal entropy per symbol; Los datos cifrados se distribuyen uniformemente, es decir, tienen una entropía máxima por símbolo;
Raw, uncompressed data is typically redundant, i.e., has sub-maximal entropy. Los datos sin procesar y sin comprimir suelen ser redundantes, es decir, tienen una entropía submáxima.
Suppose you could measure the entropy of the data to- and from- your network interface. Then you could see the difference between unencrypted data and encrypted data. This would be true even if some of the data in <quote>encrypted mode</quote> was not encrypted---as the outermost IP header must be if the packet is to be routable. Suponga que usted pudiera medir la entropía de los datos que van hacia -y desde- su interfaz de red. Entonces podría ver la diferencia entre los datos no cifrados y los cifrados. Esto sería verdad incluso si algunos de los datos en <quote>modo cifrado</quote> no lo estuvieran---ya que el encabezado IP más externo debe estarlo para que el paquete sea enrutable.
MUST MUST
Ueli Maurer's <quote>Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators</quote>(<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"> <acronym>MUST</acronym></link>) quickly measures the entropy of a sample. It uses a compression-like algorithm. <link linkend="code">The code is given below</link> for a variant which measures successive (~quarter megabyte) chunks of a file. El <quote>Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators</quote> (<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"><acronym>MUST</acronym></link>) de Ueli Maurer mide rápidamente la entropía de una muestra. Utiliza un algoritmo de compresión. <link linkend="code">El código se proporciona a continuación</link> para una variante que mide partes sucesivas (~cuarto de megabyte) de un archivo
Tcpdump Tcpdump
We also need a way to capture the raw network data. A program called <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> lets you do this, if you have enabled the <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> interface in your <link linkend="kernel">kernel's config file</link>. También necesitamos una forma de capturar los datos de red sin procesar. Un programa llamado <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> le permite hacerlo, si tiene habilitada la interfaz de <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> en el <link linkend="kernel">archivo de configuración de su kernel</link>.
The command: El comando:
<userinput>tcpdump -c 4000 -s 10000 -w <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable></userinput> <userinput>tcpdump -c 4000 -s 10000 -w <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable></userinput>
will capture 4000 raw packets to <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable>. Up to 10,000 bytes per packet will be captured in this example. capturará 4000 paquetes sin procesar en el fichero <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable>. En este ejemplo se capturarán hasta 10.000 bytes por paquete.
The Experiment El experimento
Here is the experiment: Aquí está el experimento:
Open a window to an IPsec host and another window to an insecure host. Abra una ventana a un host IPsec y otra ventana a un host inseguro.
Now start <link linkend="tcpdump">capturing packets</link>. Ahora empiece a <link linkend="tcpdump">capturar paquetes</link>.
In the <quote>secure</quote> window, run the <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> command <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yes</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which will stream the <literal>y</literal> character. After a while, stop this. Switch to the insecure window, and repeat. After a while, stop. En la ventana <quote>segura</quote>, ejecute el comando <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yes</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, que transmitirá el carácter <literal>y</literal>. Después de un rato, detenga el comando. Cambie a la ventana insegura, y repita. Espere un poco, detenga el comando.
Now run <link linkend="code">MUST</link> on the captured packets. You should see something like the following. The important thing to note is that the secure connection has 93% (6.7) of the expected value (7.18), and the <quote>normal</quote> connection has 29% (2.1) of the expected value. Ahora ejecute <link linkend="code">MUST</link> en los paquetes capturados. Debería ver algo como lo siguiente. Lo importante a tener en cuenta es que la conexión segura tiene un 93% (6,7) del valor esperado (7,18), y la conexión <quote>normal</quote> tiene un 29% (2,1) del valor esperado.

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(itstool) path: listitem/para
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article.translate.xml:60
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a year ago
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articles/es_ES/ipsec-must.po, string 15