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(itstool) path: abstract/para
English
You installed IPsec and it seems to be working. How do you know? I describe a method for experimentally verifying that IPsec is working.
Context English Spanish State
_ translator-credits Sergio Carlavilla carlavilla@FreeBSD.org, 2019
Independent Verification of IPsec Functionality in FreeBSD Verificación independiente de la funcionalidad de IPsec en FreeBSD
<email>honig@sprynet.com</email> <email>honig@sprynet.com</email>
<personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation> <personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
1999-05-03 1999-05-03
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation. FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ipsec-must/article.xml 52227 2018-09-06 01:30:47Z ebrandi $ $FreeBSD$
You installed IPsec and it seems to be working. How do you know? I describe a method for experimentally verifying that IPsec is working. Instaló IPsec y parece estar funcionando. ¿Cómo lo sabe? Describo un método para verificar de forma experimental que IPsec está funcionando.
The Problem El problema
First, lets assume you have <link linkend="ipsec-install"> installed <emphasis>IPsec</emphasis></link>. How do you know it is <link linkend="caveat">working</link>? Sure, your connection will not work if it is misconfigured, and it will work when you finally get it right. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will list it. But can you independently confirm it? Primero, asumamos que ha <link linkend="ipsec-install">instalado <emphasis>IPsec</emphasis></link>. ¿Cómo sabe que está <link linkend="caveat">funcionando</link>? Claro, su conexión no funcionará si está mal configurada, y funcionará cuando finalmente lo haga bien. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> la listará. ¿Pero puede confirmarlo de forma independiente?
The Solution La solución
First, some crypto-relevant info theory: Primero, alguna información teórica relevante sobre criptografía:
Encrypted data is uniformly distributed, i.e., has maximal entropy per symbol; Los datos cifrados se distribuyen uniformemente, es decir, tienen una entropía máxima por símbolo;
Raw, uncompressed data is typically redundant, i.e., has sub-maximal entropy. Los datos sin procesar y sin comprimir suelen ser redundantes, es decir, tienen una entropía submáxima.
Suppose you could measure the entropy of the data to- and from- your network interface. Then you could see the difference between unencrypted data and encrypted data. This would be true even if some of the data in <quote>encrypted mode</quote> was not encrypted---as the outermost IP header must be if the packet is to be routable. Suponga que usted pudiera medir la entropía de los datos que van hacia -y desde- su interfaz de red. Entonces podría ver la diferencia entre los datos no cifrados y los cifrados. Esto sería verdad incluso si algunos de los datos en <quote>modo cifrado</quote> no lo estuvieran---ya que el encabezado IP más externo debe estarlo para que el paquete sea enrutable.
MUST MUST
Ueli Maurer's <quote>Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators</quote>(<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"> <acronym>MUST</acronym></link>) quickly measures the entropy of a sample. It uses a compression-like algorithm. <link linkend="code">The code is given below</link> for a variant which measures successive (~quarter megabyte) chunks of a file. El <quote>Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators</quote> (<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"><acronym>MUST</acronym></link>) de Ueli Maurer mide rápidamente la entropía de una muestra. Utiliza un algoritmo de compresión. <link linkend="code">El código se proporciona a continuación</link> para una variante que mide partes sucesivas (~cuarto de megabyte) de un archivo
Tcpdump Tcpdump
We also need a way to capture the raw network data. A program called <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> lets you do this, if you have enabled the <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> interface in your <link linkend="kernel">kernel's config file</link>. También necesitamos una forma de capturar los datos de red sin procesar. Un programa llamado <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> le permite hacerlo, si tiene habilitada la interfaz de <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> en el <link linkend="kernel">archivo de configuración de su kernel</link>.
The command: El comando:
<userinput>tcpdump -c 4000 -s 10000 -w <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable></userinput> <userinput>tcpdump -c 4000 -s 10000 -w <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable></userinput>
will capture 4000 raw packets to <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable>. Up to 10,000 bytes per packet will be captured in this example. capturará 4000 paquetes sin procesar en el fichero <replaceable>dumpfile.bin</replaceable>. En este ejemplo se capturarán hasta 10.000 bytes por paquete.
The Experiment El experimento

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(itstool) path: abstract/para
Source string location
article.translate.xml:36
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a year ago
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a year ago
Translation file
articles/es_ES/ipsec-must.po, string 10