Translation

(itstool) path: legalnotice/para
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
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Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
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translator-credits
Edson Brandi, ebrandi@FreeBSD.org, 2018
Mauro Risonho de Paula Assumpção, mauro.risonho@gmail.com, 2018
Independent Verification of IPsec Functionality in FreeBSD
Verificação Independente da Funcionalidade IPsec no FreeBSD
<email>honig@sprynet.com</email>
<email>honig@sprynet.com</email>
<personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>Honig</surname></personname><affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
1999-05-03
1999-05-03
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ipsec-must/article.xml 52227 2018-09-06 01:30:47Z ebrandi $
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ipsec-must/article.xml 52227 2018-09-06 01:30:47Z ebrandi $
You installed IPsec and it seems to be working. How do you know? I describe a method for experimentally verifying that IPsec is working.
Você instalou o IPsec e ele parece estar funcionando. Como você sabe? Eu descrevo um método para verificar experimentalmente se o IPsec está funcionando.
The Problem
O problema
First, lets assume you have <link linkend="ipsec-install"> installed <emphasis>IPsec</emphasis></link>. How do you know it is <link linkend="caveat">working</link>? Sure, your connection will not work if it is misconfigured, and it will work when you finally get it right. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will list it. But can you independently confirm it?
Primeiro, vamos assumir que você tem o <link linkend="ipsec-install"><emphasis>IPsec</emphasis> instalado </link>. Como você sabe que ele está <link linkend="caveat">funcionando</link>? Claro, sua conexão não funcionará se ele estiver mal configurado, e funcionará quando você finalmente acertar a configuração. O <citerefentry> <refentrytitle>netstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>irá listá-lo. Mas você pode confirmar isso de forma independente?
The Solution
A solução
First, some crypto-relevant info theory:
Em primeiro lugar, vejamos alguma informação teórica relevante em relação à criptografia:
Encrypted data is uniformly distributed, i.e., has maximal entropy per symbol;
Dados criptografados são uniformemente distribuídos, ou seja, possuem entropia máxima por símbolo;
Raw, uncompressed data is typically redundant, i.e., has sub-maximal entropy.
Os dados brutos, não comprimidos são tipicamente redundantes, isto é, possuem entropia submáxima.
Suppose you could measure the entropy of the data to- and from- your network interface. Then you could see the difference between unencrypted data and encrypted data. This would be true even if some of the data in <quote>encrypted mode</quote> was not encrypted---as the outermost IP header must be if the packet is to be routable.
Suponha que você possa medir a entropia dos dados destinados para a sua interface de rede e também dos dados originados dela. Então você pode ver a diferença entre dados não criptografados e dados criptografados. Isso seria verdade mesmo que alguns dos dados no <quote>modo criptografado</quote> não estivessem criptografados --- como deve o cabeçalho IP mais externo para que o pacote seja roteável.
MUST
MUST
Ueli Maurer's <quote>Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators</quote>(<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"> <acronym>MUST</acronym></link>) quickly measures the entropy of a sample. It uses a compression-like algorithm. <link linkend="code">The code is given below</link> for a variant which measures successive (~quarter megabyte) chunks of a file.
O teste de <quote>Estatística Universal para Geradores de Bits Aleatórios</quote> de Ueli Maurer (<link xlink:href="https://web.archive.org/web/20011115002319/http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Code/4704/universal.pdf"><acronym>MUST</acronym> </link>) mede rapidamente a entropia de uma amostra. Ele usa um algoritmo semelhante à compressão. <link linkend="code"> O código é dado abaixo</link> para uma variante que mede partes sucessivas (aproximadamente um quarto de megabyte) de um arquivo.
Tcpdump
Tcpdump
We also need a way to capture the raw network data. A program called <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> lets you do this, if you have enabled the <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> interface in your <link linkend="kernel">kernel's config file</link>.
Também precisamos de uma maneira de capturar os dados brutos da rede. Um programa chamado <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpdump</refentrytitle> <manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> permite que você faça isso, se você ativou a interface <emphasis>Berkeley Packet Filter</emphasis> no seu <link linkend="kernel">arquivo de configuração do kernel</link>.
ComponentTranslation
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ipsec-must
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Following strings have same context and same source.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_geom-class
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_gjournal-desktop
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_explaining-bsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_filtering-bridge
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_cups
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_nanobsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pr-guidelines
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_rc-scripting
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_remote-install
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_serial-uart
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_arch-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_hubs
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-questions
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_building-products
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_committers-guide
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributing
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ldap-auth
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-update-server
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributors
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-emulation
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_problem-reports
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_solid-state
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_vm-design
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_fonts
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_developers-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_new-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pam
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_faq
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_porters-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.

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(itstool) path: legalnotice/para
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articles/pt_BR/ipsec-must.po, string 6