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FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
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Sergio Carlavilla carlavilla@FreeBSD.org, 2019
LDAP Authentication
Autenticación LDAP

<email>kurin@causa-sui.net</email>

<email>kurin@causa-sui.net</email>
<personname> <firstname>Toby</firstname> <surname>Burress</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<personname> <firstname>Toby</firstname> <surname>Burress</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
<year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.xml 47080 2015-07-25 16:21:53Z bcr $
$FreeBSD$
This document is intended as a guide for the configuration of an LDAP server (principally an <application>OpenLDAP</application> server) for authentication on FreeBSD. This is useful for situations where many servers need the same user accounts, for example as a replacement for <application>NIS</application>.
Este documento pretende ser una guía para la configuración de un servidor LDAP (principalmente un servidor <application>OpenLDAP</application>) para la autenticación en FreeBSD. Esto es útil para situaciones en las que muchos servidores necesitan las mismas cuentas de usuario, por ejemplo, como reemplazo de <application>NIS</application>.
Preface
Prólogo
This document is intended to give the reader enough of an understanding of LDAP to configure an LDAP server. This document will attempt to provide an explanation of <package>net/nss_ldap</package> and <package>security/pam_ldap</package> for use with client machines services for use with the LDAP server.
Este documento está destinado a proporcionar al lector una comprensión suficiente de LDAP para configurar un servidor LDAP. Este documento intentará proporcionar una explicación de <package>net/nss_ldap</package> y <package>security/pam_ldap</package> para usarlos con los servicios de la máquina del cliente para su uso con el servidor LDAP.
When finished, the reader should be able to configure and deploy a FreeBSD server that can host an LDAP directory, and to configure and deploy a FreeBSD server which can authenticate against an LDAP directory.
Cuando termine, el lector debería poder configurar e implementar un servidor FreeBSD que pueda alojar un directorio LDAP, y configurar e implementar un servidor FreeBSD que pueda autenticarse en un directorio LDAP.
This article is not intended to be an exhaustive account of the security, robustness, or best practice considerations for configuring LDAP or the other services discussed herein. While the author takes care to do everything correctly, they do not address security issues beyond a general scope. This article should be considered to lay the theoretical groundwork only, and any actual implementation should be accompanied by careful requirement analysis.
Este artículo no pretende ser una explicación exhaustiva de las consideraciones de seguridad, robustez o mejores prácticas para configurar LDAP u otros de los servicios que se explicaran aquí. Aunque el autor tiene cuidado de hacer todo correctamente, no aborda los problemas de seguridad más allá del alcance general. Este artículo debe tenerse en cuenta para sentar las bases teóricas únicamente, y cualquier implementación real debe ir acompañado de un análisis cuidadoso de los requisitos.
Configuring LDAP
Configurando LDAP
LDAP stands for <quote>Lightweight Directory Access Protocol</quote> and is a subset of the X.500 Directory Access Protocol. Its most recent specifications are in <link xlink:href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4510.txt">RFC4510</link> and friends. Essentially it is a database that expects to be read from more often than it is written to.
LDAP significa <quote>Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (Protocolo Ligero/Simplificado de Acceso a Directorios)</quote> y es un subconjunto del protocolo de acceso a directorios X.500. Sus últimas especificaciones están en <link xlink:href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4510.txt">RFC4510</link> y amigos. En esencia, es una base de datos que espera ser leída con más frecuencia de la que se escribe.
The LDAP server <link xlink:href="http://www.openldap.org/">OpenLDAP</link> will be used in the examples in this document; while the principles here should be generally applicable to many different servers, most of the concrete administration is <application>OpenLDAP</application>-specific. There are several server versions in ports, for example <package>net/openldap24-server</package>. Client servers will need the corresponding <package>net/openldap24-client</package> libraries.
En los ejemplos de este documento se utilizará el servidor LDAP <link xlink:href="http://www.openldap.org/">OpenLDAP</link>; aunque los procedimientos deberían ser aplicables a los diferentes servidores, la mayor parte de la administración es específica de <application>OpenLDAP</application>. Hay varias versiones del servidor en la colección de ports, por ejemplo, <package>net/openldap24-server</package>. Los clientes necesitarán las librerias necesarias del paquete <package>net/openldap24-client</package>.
There are (basically) two areas of the LDAP service which need configuration. The first is setting up a server to receive connections properly, and the second is adding entries to the server's directory so that FreeBSD tools know how to interact with it.
Hay (básicamente) dos áreas del servicio LDAP que necesitan configuración. El primero es configurar un servidor para recibir conexiones correctamente, y el segundo es añadir entradas al directorio del servidor para que las herramientas de FreeBSD sepan como interactuar con él.
Setting Up the Server for Connections
Configurar el servidor para las conexiones
This section is specific to <application>OpenLDAP</application>. If you are using another server, you will need to consult that server's documentation.
Esta sección es específica de <application>OpenLDAP</application>. Si está utilizando otro servidor, deberá consultar la documentación de ese servidor.
Installing <application>OpenLDAP</application>
Instalar <application>OpenLDAP</application>
First, install <application>OpenLDAP</application>:
Primero, instale <application>OpenLDAP</application>:
ComponentTranslation
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ldap-auth
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Following strings have same context and same source.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-questions
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_explaining-bsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_committers-guide
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_filtering-bridge
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_fonts
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributing
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-update-server
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_gjournal-desktop
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_geom-class
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_cups
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributors
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_new-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_hubs
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ipsec-must
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pam
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pr-guidelines
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_problem-reports
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_remote-install
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_solid-state
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-emulation
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_nanobsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_faq
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_building-products
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_handbook
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