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FreeBSD Support for Leap Seconds FreeBSD 对闰秒的支持
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/article.xml 51243 2017-11-30 14:49:53Z ygy $ $FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/article.xml 51243 2017-11-30 14:49:53Z ygy $
Introduction 介绍
A <emphasis>leap second</emphasis> is an one second adjustment made at specific times of year to UTC to synchronize atomic time scales with variations in the rotation of the Earth. This article describes how FreeBSD interacts with leap seconds. <emphasis>闰秒</emphasis>是为了同步地球自转,而对原子钟标准时间所做的特定修正。本文描述了 FreeBSD 如何处理闰秒。
As of this writing, the next leap second will occur at 2015-Jun-30 23:59:60 UTC. This leap second will occur during a business day for North and South America and the Asia/Pacific region. 截至本文完稿时,下一个闰秒将会发生在2015年6月30日23:59:60 UTC。这个闰秒将会发生在南北美洲和亚太地区的一个工作日里。
Leap seconds are announced by <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/"><acronym>IERS</acronym></link> on <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/web/guest/bulletins/-/somos/5Rgv/product/16">Bulletin C</link>. 闰秒是由 <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/"><acronym>IERS</acronym></link> 在 <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/web/guest/bulletins/-/somos/5Rgv/product/16">Bulletin C</link> 上宣布的。
Standard leap second behavior is described in <link xlink:href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7164#section-3">RFC 7164</link>. Also see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>time2posix</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <link xlink:href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7164#section-3">RFC 7164</link> 描述了闰秒的标准行为。也可参见 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>time2posix</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> 。
Default Leap Second Handling on FreeBSD FreeBSD 对闰秒的默认处理方式
The easiest way to handle leap seconds is with the <acronym>POSIX</acronym> time rules FreeBSD uses by default, combined with <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>. When <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is running and the time is synchronized with upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers that handle leap seconds correctly, the leap second will cause the system time to automatically repeat the last second of the day. No other adjustments are necessary. 处理闰秒最简单的方法是使用 FreeBSD 预设的 <acronym>POSIX</acronym> 时间规则, 以及 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>。如果 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 正在运行,并且时间和正确处理闰秒的上游 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 服务器同步,闰秒将使系统时间自动重复当天的最后一秒。不需要进行其它调整。
If the upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers do not handle leap seconds correctly, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will step the time by one second after the errant upstream server has noticed and stepped itself. 如果上游的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 服务器没有正确处理闰秒,<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 会在错误的上游服务器发现错误并修正后,跟着加上一秒。
If <acronym>NTP</acronym> is not being used, manual adjustment of the system clock will be required after the leap second has passed. 如果未使用 <acronym>NTP</acronym>,将需要在闰秒过后手动调整系统时钟。
Cautions 注意
Leap seconds are inserted at the same instant all over the world: <acronym>UTC</acronym> midnight. In Japan that is mid-morning, in the Pacific mid-day, in the Americas late afternoon, and in Europe at night. 闰秒在全世界的同一瞬间插入:<acronym>UTC</acronym> 午夜。日本在上午,太平洋在正午,美洲在傍晚,而欧洲在晚上。
We believe and expect that FreeBSD, if provided correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service, will work as designed during this leap second, as it did during the previous ones. 我们相信并预期,如果提供了正确和稳定的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 服务,FreeBSD 会在闰秒时按设计运作,正如在之前遇到闰秒时一样。
However, we caution that practically no applications have ever asked the kernel about leap seconds. Our experience is that, as designed, leap seconds are essentially a replay of the second before the leap second, and this is a surprise to most application programmers. 然而我们要警告,事实上没有应用程序会向内核询问关于闰秒的事。我们的经验是,闰秒正如设计的一样,本质上是闰秒前一秒的重播,这对大部分应用程序开发者来说是意想不到的事。
Component Translation Difference to current string
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_leap-seconds
The following strings have the same context and source.
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-users
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_rc-scripting
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/books_porters-handbook
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_remote-install
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_nanobsd ygydelphij
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/books_developers-handbook
Not translated FreeBSD Doc/books_arch-handbook
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_handbook ygytranslator-credits

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Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
String age
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Translation file
articles/zh_CN/leap-seconds.po, string 1