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Other operating systems and other computers may or may not handle the leap-second the same way as FreeBSD, and systems without correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service will not know anything about leap seconds at all.
Context English Chinese (Traditional) (zh_TW) State
FreeBSD Support for Leap Seconds FreeBSD 對潤秒的支援
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/article.xml 51243 2017-11-30 14:49:53Z ygy $
Introduction 說明
A <emphasis>leap second</emphasis> is an one second adjustment made at specific times of year to UTC to synchronize atomic time scales with variations in the rotation of the Earth. This article describes how FreeBSD interacts with leap seconds.
As of this writing, the next leap second will occur at 2015-Jun-30 23:59:60 UTC. This leap second will occur during a business day for North and South America and the Asia/Pacific region. 本文寫作時,下一個潤秒會發生在2015年6月30日23:59:60 CST。下一次潤秒會發生在南北美洲和亞太地區的工作日。
Leap seconds are announced by <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/"><acronym>IERS</acronym></link> on <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/web/guest/bulletins/-/somos/5Rgv/product/16">Bulletin C</link>. 潤秒是由 <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/"><acronym>IERS</acronym></link> 在 <link xlink:href="http://datacenter.iers.org/web/guest/bulletins/-/somos/5Rgv/product/16">Bulletin C</link>所發表。
Standard leap second behavior is described in <link xlink:href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7164#section-3">RFC 7164</link>. Also see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>time2posix</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>. 標準的潤秒行為描述在<link xlink:href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7164#section-3">RFC 7164</link>.。也可見 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>time2posix</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>。
Default Leap Second Handling on FreeBSD FreeBSD預設的潤秒處理
The easiest way to handle leap seconds is with the <acronym>POSIX</acronym> time rules FreeBSD uses by default, combined with <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>. When <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is running and the time is synchronized with upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers that handle leap seconds correctly, the leap second will cause the system time to automatically repeat the last second of the day. No other adjustments are necessary. 最簡單的處理潤秒方法使用FreeBSD預設的 <acronym>POSIX</acronym> 時間規則,並使用 <link xlink:href="../../../../doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>。如果 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 在執行,而且時間和上游正確處理潤秒的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器同步,潤秒會使系統時間自動重複當天的最後一秒。不需要其他調整。
If the upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers do not handle leap seconds correctly, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will step the time by one second after the errant upstream server has noticed and stepped itself. 如果上游的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器無法正確地處理潤秒, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 會在錯誤的上游伺服器發現錯誤並跳一秒後,跟著把時間跳一秒。
If <acronym>NTP</acronym> is not being used, manual adjustment of the system clock will be required after the leap second has passed. 如果未使用 <acronym>NTP</acronym> ,將需要在潤秒過後,手動調整系統時鐘。
Cautions 警告
Leap seconds are inserted at the same instant all over the world: <acronym>UTC</acronym> midnight. In Japan that is mid-morning, in the Pacific mid-day, in the Americas late afternoon, and in Europe at night. 潤秒的插入在全世界是在同一個瞬間: <acronym>UTC</acronym> 午夜。在日本,是在上午九點,在太平洋,是正午,在美洲,是傍晚,在歐洲,是晚上。
We believe and expect that FreeBSD, if provided correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service, will work as designed during this leap second, as it did during the previous ones. 我們相信和預期,如果提供正確和穩定的<acronym>NTP</acronym> 服務,FreeBSD會如設計地在這次潤秒正確運作,就像在之前遇到潤秒時一樣。
However, we caution that practically no applications have ever asked the kernel about leap seconds. Our experience is that, as designed, leap seconds are essentially a replay of the second before the leap second, and this is a surprise to most application programmers. 然而我們要警告,實務上沒有應用程式曾經要求核心關於潤秒的事。我們的經驗是,如同設計,潤秒本質上是潤秒前一秒的重播,這對大部份應用程式設計師來說是意想不到的事。
Other operating systems and other computers may or may not handle the leap-second the same way as FreeBSD, and systems without correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service will not know anything about leap seconds at all. 其他作業系統或電腦可能會或可能不會像FreeBSD用同樣方法處理潤秒,沒有正確和穩定<acronym>NTP</acronym> 服務的系統一點也不會知道潤秒的發生。
It is not unheard of for computers to crash because of leap seconds, and experience has shown that a large fraction of all public <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers might handle and announce the leap second incorrectly. 電腦因為潤秒而當機並不是沒有聽聞,經驗上也顯示,有大量公用的<acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器沒有正確地處理和公告潤秒。
Please try to make sure nothing horrible happens because of the leap second. 請試著確定不會因為潤秒而發生任何可怕的事情。
Testing 測試
It is possible to test whether a leap second will be used. Due to the nature of <acronym>NTP</acronym>, the test might work up to 24 hours before the leap second. Some major reference clock sources only announce leap seconds one hour ahead of the event. Query the <acronym>NTP</acronym> daemon: 測試是否有使用潤秒是有可能的。由於 <acronym>NTP</acronym>的性質,測試可能要運作到潤秒前24小時。有些主要的參考時鐘來源只在潤秒前一個小時公告。詢問<acronym>NTP</acronym>行程:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ntpq -c 'rv 0 leap'</userinput> <prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ntpq -c 'rv 0 leap'</userinput>
Output that includes <literal>leap_add_sec</literal> indicates proper support of the leap second. Before the 24 hours leading up to the leap second, or after the leap second has passed, <literal>leap_none</literal> will be shown. 包含<literal>leap_add_sec</literal> 的輸出指出對於潤秒的支援。潤秒前24小時,或是潤秒已經過了,會顯示<literal>leap_none</literal>。
Conclusion 結論
In practice, leap seconds are usually not a problem on FreeBSD. We hope that this overview helps clarify what to expect and how to make the leap second event proceed more smoothly. 實務上,FreeBSD 的潤秒通常不是個問題。我們希望這篇概述能幫助釐清預期會遇到什麼狀況,如何使潤秒事件進行的更順利。

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Other operating systems and other computers may or may not handle the leap-second the same way as FreeBSD, and systems without correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service will not know anything about leap seconds at all.
其他作業系統或電腦可能會或可能不會像FreeBSD用同樣方法處理潤秒,沒有正確和穩定<acronym>NTP</acronym> 服務的系統一點也不會知道潤秒的發生。
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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/para
Source string location
article.translate.xml:74
String age
2 months ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/zh_TW/leap-seconds.po, string 17