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Default Leap Second Handling on FreeBSD FreeBSD預設的潤秒處理
The easiest way to handle leap seconds is with the <acronym>POSIX</acronym> time rules FreeBSD uses by default, combined with <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>. When <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is running and the time is synchronized with upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers that handle leap seconds correctly, the leap second will cause the system time to automatically repeat the last second of the day. No other adjustments are necessary. 最簡單的處理潤秒方法使用FreeBSD預設的 <acronym>POSIX</acronym> 時間規則,並使用 <link xlink:href="../../../../doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/network-ntp.html"><acronym>NTP</acronym></link>。如果 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 在執行,而且時間和上游正確處理潤秒的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器同步,潤秒會使系統時間自動重複當天的最後一秒。不需要其他調整。
If the upstream <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers do not handle leap seconds correctly, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will step the time by one second after the errant upstream server has noticed and stepped itself. 如果上游的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器無法正確地處理潤秒, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 會在錯誤的上游伺服器發現錯誤並跳一秒後,跟著把時間跳一秒。
If <acronym>NTP</acronym> is not being used, manual adjustment of the system clock will be required after the leap second has passed. 如果未使用 <acronym>NTP</acronym> ,將需要在潤秒過後,手動調整系統時鐘。
Cautions 警告
Leap seconds are inserted at the same instant all over the world: <acronym>UTC</acronym> midnight. In Japan that is mid-morning, in the Pacific mid-day, in the Americas late afternoon, and in Europe at night. 潤秒的插入在全世界是在同一個瞬間: <acronym>UTC</acronym> 午夜。在日本,是在上午九點,在太平洋,是正午,在美洲,是傍晚,在歐洲,是晚上。
We believe and expect that FreeBSD, if provided correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service, will work as designed during this leap second, as it did during the previous ones. 我們相信和預期,如果提供正確和穩定的<acronym>NTP</acronym> 服務,FreeBSD會如設計地在這次潤秒正確運作,就像在之前遇到潤秒時一樣。
However, we caution that practically no applications have ever asked the kernel about leap seconds. Our experience is that, as designed, leap seconds are essentially a replay of the second before the leap second, and this is a surprise to most application programmers. 然而我們要警告,實務上沒有應用程式曾經要求核心關於潤秒的事。我們的經驗是,如同設計,潤秒本質上是潤秒前一秒的重播,這對大部份應用程式設計師來說是意想不到的事。
Other operating systems and other computers may or may not handle the leap-second the same way as FreeBSD, and systems without correct and stable <acronym>NTP</acronym> service will not know anything about leap seconds at all. 其他作業系統或電腦可能會或可能不會像FreeBSD用同樣方法處理潤秒,沒有正確和穩定<acronym>NTP</acronym> 服務的系統一點也不會知道潤秒的發生。
It is not unheard of for computers to crash because of leap seconds, and experience has shown that a large fraction of all public <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers might handle and announce the leap second incorrectly. 電腦因為潤秒而當機並不是沒有聽聞,經驗上也顯示,有大量公用的<acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器沒有正確地處理和公告潤秒。
Please try to make sure nothing horrible happens because of the leap second. 請試著確定不會因為潤秒而發生任何可怕的事情。
Testing 測試
It is possible to test whether a leap second will be used. Due to the nature of <acronym>NTP</acronym>, the test might work up to 24 hours before the leap second. Some major reference clock sources only announce leap seconds one hour ahead of the event. Query the <acronym>NTP</acronym> daemon: 測試是否有使用潤秒是有可能的。由於 <acronym>NTP</acronym>的性質,測試可能要運作到潤秒前24小時。有些主要的參考時鐘來源只在潤秒前一個小時公告。詢問<acronym>NTP</acronym>行程:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ntpq -c 'rv 0 leap'</userinput> <prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ntpq -c 'rv 0 leap'</userinput>
Output that includes <literal>leap_add_sec</literal> indicates proper support of the leap second. Before the 24 hours leading up to the leap second, or after the leap second has passed, <literal>leap_none</literal> will be shown. 包含<literal>leap_add_sec</literal> 的輸出指出對於潤秒的支援。潤秒前24小時,或是潤秒已經過了,會顯示<literal>leap_none</literal>。
Conclusion 結論
In practice, leap seconds are usually not a problem on FreeBSD. We hope that this overview helps clarify what to expect and how to make the leap second event proceed more smoothly. 實務上,FreeBSD 的潤秒通常不是個問題。我們希望這篇概述能幫助釐清預期會遇到什麼狀況,如何使潤秒事件進行的更順利。


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(itstool) path: sect1/title
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a month ago
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a year ago
Translation file
articles/zh_TW/leap-seconds.po, string 24