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parameter -&gt; <varname>%edi</varname>
parameter -&gt; <varname>%ebp</varname>
There are some exceptions to this, where <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> uses different calling convention (most notably the <literal>clone</literal> syscall).
The trap handlers are introduced in <filename>arch/i386/kernel/traps.c</filename> and most of these handlers live in <filename>arch/i386/kernel/entry.S</filename>, where handling of the traps happens.
Return from the syscall is managed by syscall <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which checks for the process having unfinished work, then checks whether we used user-supplied selectors. If this happens stack fixing is applied and finally the registers are restored from the stack and the process returns to the userspace.
In the 2.6 version, the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> operating system redefined some of the traditional <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> primitives, notably PID, TID and thread. PID is defined not to be unique for every process, so for some processes (threads) <citerefentry><refentrytitle>getppid</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> returns the same value. Unique identification of process is provided by TID. This is because <firstterm>NPTL</firstterm> (New <trademark class="registered">POSIX</trademark> Thread Library) defines threads to be normal processes (so called 1:1 threading). Spawning a new process in <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 2.6 happens using the <literal>clone</literal> syscall (fork variants are reimplemented using it). This clone syscall defines a set of flags that affect behavior of the cloning process regarding thread implementation. The semantic is a bit fuzzy as there is no single flag telling the syscall to create a thread.
Implemented clone flags are:
<literal>CLONE_VM</literal> - processes share their memory space
<literal>CLONE_FS</literal> - share umask, cwd and namespace
<literal>CLONE_FILES</literal> - share open files
<literal>CLONE_SIGHAND</literal> - share signal handlers and blocked signals



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