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Updating FreeBSD
There are two methods for updating a FreeBSD system: from source or binary updates.
Updating from source is the most involved update method, but offers the greatest amount of flexibility. The process involves synchronizing a local copy of the FreeBSD source code with the FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application> servers. Once the local source code is up-to-date, a new version of the kernel and userland can be compiled.
Binary updates are similar to using <command>yum</command> or <command>apt-get</command> to update a <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> system. In FreeBSD, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>freebsd-update</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used fetch new binary updates and install them. These updates can be scheduled using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to schedule updates, use <command>freebsd-update cron</command> in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to reduce the possibility of a large number of machines all pulling updates at the same time:
0 3 * * * root /usr/sbin/freebsd-update cron
For more information on source and binary updates, refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/updating-upgrading.html">the chapter on updating</link> in the FreeBSD Handbook.
procfs: Gone But Not Forgotten
In some <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> distributions, one could look at <filename>/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward</filename> to determine if <acronym>IP</acronym> forwarding is enabled. In FreeBSD, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is instead used to view this and other system settings.
For example, use the following to determine if <acronym>IP</acronym> forwarding is enabled on a FreeBSD system:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding</userinput>
net.inet.ip.forwarding: 0
Use <option>-a</option> to list all the system settings:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sysctl -a | more</userinput>
If an application requires procfs, add the following entry to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>:
proc /proc procfs rw,noauto 0 0
Including <option>noauto</option> will prevent <filename>/proc</filename> from being automatically mounted at boot.
To mount the file system without rebooting:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /proc</userinput>
Common Commands
Some common command equivalents are as follows:
<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> command (Red Hat/Debian)
FreeBSD equivalent
Purpose
<command>yum install <replaceable>package</replaceable></command> / <command>apt-get install <replaceable>package</replaceable></command>
<command>pkg install <replaceable>package</replaceable></command>
Install package from remote repository
<command>rpm -ivh <replaceable>package</replaceable></command> / <command>dpkg -i <replaceable>package</replaceable></command>
<command>pkg add <replaceable>package</replaceable></command>
Install local package
<command>rpm -qa</command> / <command>dpkg -l</command>
<command>pkg info</command>

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