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<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> users are often surprised to find that <application>Bash</application> is not the default shell in FreeBSD. In fact, <application>Bash</application> is not included in the default installation. Instead, FreeBSD uses <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the default root shell, and the <application>Bourne shell</application>-compatible <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the default user shell. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is very similar to <application>Bash</application> but with a much smaller feature-set. Generally shell scripts written for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will run in <application>Bash</application>, but the reverse is not always true.
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This document is intended to quickly familiarize intermediate to advanced <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> users with the basics of FreeBSD.
El objetivo de este documento es familiarizar rápidamente a los usuarios intermedios y avanzados de <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> con los conceptos básicos de FreeBSD.
Introduction
Introducción
This document highlights some of the technical differences between FreeBSD and <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> so that intermediate to advanced <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> users can quickly familiarize themselves with the basics of FreeBSD.
Este documento destaca algunas de las diferencias técnicas entre FreeBSD y <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> para que los usuarios intermedios y avanzados de <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> puedan familiarizarse rápidamente con los conceptos básicos de FreeBSD.
This document assumes that FreeBSD is already installed. Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html"> Installing FreeBSD</link> chapter of the FreeBSD Handbook for help with the installation process.
Este documento asume que FreeBSD ya está instalado. Consulte el capítulo <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html">Instalación de FreeBSD</link> del Manual de FreeBSD para obtener ayuda con el proceso de instalación.
Default Shell
Shell por defecto
<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> users are often surprised to find that <application>Bash</application> is not the default shell in FreeBSD. In fact, <application>Bash</application> is not included in the default installation. Instead, FreeBSD uses <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the default root shell, and the <application>Bourne shell</application>-compatible <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the default user shell. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is very similar to <application>Bash</application> but with a much smaller feature-set. Generally shell scripts written for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will run in <application>Bash</application>, but the reverse is not always true.
Los usuarios de <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> a menudo se sorprenden al descubrir que <application>Bash</application> no es la shell por defecto en FreeBSD. De hecho, <application>Bash</application> no está incluido en la instalación predeterminada. En su lugar, FreeBSD utiliza <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> como shell predeterminada para el usuario root y <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> como shell compatible con <application>Bourne shell</application> por defecto. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> es muy similar a <application>Bash</application> pero con un conjunto de características mucho más pequeño. Generalmente, los scripts escritos para <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> se ejecutarán en <application>Bash</application>, pero al contrario no siempre es así.
However, <application>Bash</application> and other shells are available for installation using the FreeBSD <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports.html">Packages and Ports Collection</link>.
Sin embargo, <application>Bash</application> y otras shells están disponibles para la instalación utilizando los <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports.html">paquetes de FreeBSD y la Colección de Ports</link>.
After installing another shell, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change a user's default shell. It is recommended that the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user's default shell remain unchanged since shells which are not included in the base distribution are installed to <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>. In the event of a problem, the file system where <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> is located may not be mounted. In this case, <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> would not have access to its default shell, preventing <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> from logging in and fixing the problem.
Después de instalar otra shell, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> para cambiar la shell predeterminada de un usuario. Se recomienda mantener la shell del usuario <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, ya que las shells que no están incluidas en el sistema base se instalan en <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>. Si hay un problema, el sistema de archivos donde se encuentra <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> podría no estar montado. En este caso, el usuario <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> podría no tener acceso a su shell por defecto, impidiendo que el usuario <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> inicie sesión y solucione el problema.
Packages and Ports: Adding Software in FreeBSD
Paquetes y Ports: Instalar software en FreeBSD
FreeBSD provides two methods for installing applications: binary packages and compiled ports. Each method has its own benefits:
FreeBSD proporciona dos métodos para instalar aplicaciones: paquetes binarios y ports compilados. Cada método tiene sus propias ventajas:
Binary Packages
Paquetes binarios

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