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Adding a User with Root Privileges
If you did not create any users when you installed the system and are thus logged in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, you should probably create a user now with
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>
The first time you use <command>adduser</command>, it might ask for some defaults to save. You might want to make the default shell <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> instead of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, if it suggests <command>sh</command> as the default. Otherwise just press enter to accept each default. These defaults are saved in <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>, an editable file.
Suppose you create a user <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem> with full name <emphasis>Jack Benimble</emphasis>. Give <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem> a password if security (even kids around who might pound on the keyboard) is an issue. When it asks you if you want to invite <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem> into other groups, type <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem>
Login group is ``jack''. Invite jack into other groups: <userinput>wheel</userinput>
This will make it possible to log in as <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem> and use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command to become <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>. Then you will not get scolded any more for logging in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.
You can quit <command>adduser</command> any time by typing <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo>, and at the end you will have a chance to approve your new user or simply type <keycap>n</keycap> for no. You might want to create a second new user so that when you edit <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem>'s login files, you will have a hot spare in case something goes wrong.
Once you have done this, use <command>exit</command> to get back to a login prompt and log in as <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem>. In general, it is a good idea to do as much work as possible as an ordinary user who does not have the power—and risk—of <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.
If you already created a user and you want the user to be able to <command>su</command> to <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, you can log in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> and edit the file <filename>/etc/group</filename>, adding <systemitem class="username">jack</systemitem> to the first line (the group <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem>). But first you need to practice <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the text editor—or use the simpler text editor, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, installed on recent versions of FreeBSD.
To delete a user, use <command>rmuser</command>.
Looking Around
Logged in as an ordinary user, look around and try out some commands that will access the sources of help and information within FreeBSD.
Here are some commands and what they do:
Tells you who you are!
Shows you where you are—the current working directory.
Lists the files in the current directory.
<command>ls -F</command>
Lists the files in the current directory with a <literal>*</literal> after executables, a <literal>/</literal> after directories, and an <literal>@</literal> after symbolic links.
<command>ls -l</command>
Lists the files in long format—size, date, permissions.
<command>ls -a</command>
Lists hidden <quote>dot</quote> files with the others. If you are <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, the <quote>dot</quote> files show up without the <option>-a</option> switch.
Changes directories. <command>cd ..</command> backs up one level; note the space after <command>cd</command>. <command>cd /usr/local</command> goes there. <command>cd ~</command> goes to the home directory of the person logged in—e.g., <filename>/usr/home/jack</filename>. Try <command>cd /cdrom</command>, and then <command>ls</command>, to find out if your CDROM is mounted and working.
<command>less <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command>
Lets you look at a file (named <replaceable>filename</replaceable>) without changing it. Try <command>less /etc/fstab</command>. Type <command>q</command> to quit.
<command>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command>


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Source string comment
(itstool) path: listitem/para
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/new-users.pot, string 40