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Other Useful Commands
shows file space and mounted systems.
<command>ps aux</command>
shows processes running. <command>ps ax</command> is a narrower form.
<command>rm <replaceable>filename</replaceable> </command>
remove <replaceable>filename</replaceable>.
<command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</replaceable> </command>
removes a directory <replaceable>dir</replaceable> and all subdirectories—careful!
<command>ls -R</command>
lists files in the current directory and all subdirectories; I used a variant, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>, to get a list of all the files in <filename>/</filename> and (separately) <filename>/usr</filename> before I found better ways to find files.
to change user's password (or <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s password)
<command>man hier</command>
manual page on the <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> filesystem
Use <command>find</command> to locate <filename>filename</filename> in <filename>/usr</filename> or any of its subdirectories with
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</userinput>
You can use <literal>*</literal> as a wildcard in <parameter>"<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</parameter> (which should be in quotes). If you tell <command>find</command> to search in <filename>/</filename> instead of <filename>/usr</filename> it will look for the file(s) on all mounted filesystems, including the CDROM and the DOS partition.
An excellent book that explains <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> commands and utilities is Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle> (2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1996). There is also a lot of <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> information on the Internet.
Next Steps
You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on your hard drive) and <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD's web site</link>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the CDROM as well as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them (get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg add <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></command>, where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the package). The CDROM has lists of the packages and ports with brief descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>, <filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and <filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in <filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the <literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs and program names respectively.
If you find the handbook too sophisticated (what with <command>lndir</command> and all) on installing ports from the CDROM, here is what usually works:
Find the port you want, say <command>kermit</command>. There will be a directory for it on the CDROM. Copy the subdirectory to <filename>/usr/local</filename> (a good place for software you add that should be available to all users) with:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</userinput>
This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> subdirectory that has all the files that the <command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.
Next, create the directory <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> if it does not already exist using <command>mkdir</command>. Now check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a file with a name that indicates it is the port you want. Copy that file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; in recent versions you can skip this step, as FreeBSD will do it for you. In the case of <command>kermit</command>, there is no distfile.
Then <command>cd</command> to the subdirectory of <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> that has the file <filename>Makefile</filename>. Type
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make all install</userinput>
During this process the port will FTP to get any compressed files it needs that it did not find on the CDROM or in <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you do not have your network running yet and there was no file for the port in <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get the distfile using another machine and copy it to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. Read <filename>Makefile</filename> (with <command>cat</command> or <command>more</command> or <command>view</command>) to find out where to go (the master distribution site) to get the file and what its name is. (Use binary file transfers!) Then go back to <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, find the directory with <filename>Makefile</filename>, and type <command>make all install</command>.
Your Working Environment
Your shell is the most important part of your working environment. The shell is what interprets the commands you type on the command line, and thus communicates with the rest of the operating system. You can also write shell scripts a series of commands to be run without intervention.


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