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Here are the three steps for installing a new shell:
Install the shell as a port or a package, just as you would any other port or package.
Use <command>chsh</command> to change your shell to <command>tcsh</command> permanently, or type <command>tcsh</command> at the prompt to change your shell without logging in again.
It can be dangerous to change <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s shell to something other than <command>sh</command> or <command>csh</command> on early versions of FreeBSD and many other versions of <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>; you may not have a working shell when the system puts you into single user mode. The solution is to use <command>su -m</command> to become <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, which will give you the <command>tcsh</command> as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, because the shell is part of the environment. You can make this permanent by adding it to your <filename>.tcshrc</filename> as an alias with:
alias su su -m
When <command>tcsh</command> starts up, it will read the <filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename> and <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename> files, as does <command>csh</command>. It will also read <filename>.login</filename> in your home directory and <filename>.cshrc</filename> as well, unless you provide a <filename>.tcshrc</filename>. This you can do by simply copying <filename>.cshrc</filename> to <filename>.tcshrc</filename>.
Now that you have installed <command>tcsh</command>, you can adjust your prompt. You can find the details in the manual page for <command>tcsh</command>, but here is a line to put in your <filename>.tcshrc</filename> that will tell you how many commands you have typed, what time it is, and what directory you are in. It also produces a <literal>&gt;</literal> if you are an ordinary user and a <literal>#</literal> if you are <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, but tsch will do that in any case:
set prompt = "%h %t %~ %# "
This should go in the same place as the existing set prompt line if there is one, or under "if($?prompt) then" if not. Comment out the old line; you can always switch back to it if you prefer it. Do not forget the spaces and quotes. You can get the <filename>.tcshrc</filename> reread by typing <command>source .tcshrc</command>.
You can get a listing of other environmental variables that have been set by typing <command>env</command> at the prompt. The result will show you your default editor, pager, and terminal type, among possibly many others. A useful command if you log in from a remote location and cannot run a program because the terminal is not capable is <command>setenv TERM vt100</command>.
As <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, you can unmount the CDROM with <command>/sbin/umount /cdrom</command>, take it out of the drive, insert another one, and mount it with <command>/sbin/mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /cdrom</command> assuming <hardware>cd0a</hardware> is the device name for your CDROM drive. The most recent versions of FreeBSD let you mount the CDROM with just <command>/sbin/mount /cdrom</command>.
Using the live filesystem—the second of FreeBSD's CDROM disks—is useful if you have got limited space. What is on the live filesystem varies from release to release. You might try playing games from the CDROM. This involves using <command>lndir</command>, which gets installed with the X Window System, to tell the program(s) where to find the necessary files, because they are in <filename>/cdrom</filename> instead of in <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories, which is where they are expected to be. Read <command>man lndir</command>.
Comments Welcome
If you use this guide I would be interested in knowing where it was unclear and what was left out that you think should be included, and if it was helpful. My thanks to Eugene W. Stark, professor of computer science at SUNY-Stony Brook, and John Fieber for helpful comments.
Annelise Anderson, <email></email>


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