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(itstool) path: sect1/para
You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on your hard drive) and <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD's web site</link>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the CDROM as well as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them (get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg add <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></command>, where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the package). The CDROM has lists of the packages and ports with brief descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>, <filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and <filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in <filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the <literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs and program names respectively.
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Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
<command>rm <replaceable>filename</replaceable> </command>
<command>rm <replaceable>filename</replaceable> </command>
remove <replaceable>filename</replaceable>.
deleta o arquivo <replaceable>filename</replaceable>.
<command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</replaceable> </command>
<command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</replaceable> </command>
removes a directory <replaceable>dir</replaceable> and all subdirectories—careful!
remove o diretório <replaceable>dir</replaceable> e todos os subdiretórios — use com cuidado!
<command>ls -R</command>
<command>ls -R</command>
lists files in the current directory and all subdirectories; I used a variant, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>, to get a list of all the files in <filename>/</filename> and (separately) <filename>/usr</filename> before I found better ways to find files.
lista os arquivos no diretório atual e em todos os subdiretórios; Eu usei uma variante, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>, para obter uma lista de todos os arquivos no diretório <filename>/</filename> e <filename>/usr</filename> (separadamente) antes de encontrar melhores maneiras de encontrar arquivos.
<command>passwd</command>
<command>passwd</command>
to change user's password (or <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s password)
para mudar a senha do usuário (ou a senha do usuário <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>).
<command>man hier</command>
<command>man hier</command>
manual page on the <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> filesystem
exibe as páginas do manual para o sistema de arquivos <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> e sua estrutura hierárquica.
Use <command>find</command> to locate <filename>filename</filename> in <filename>/usr</filename> or any of its subdirectories with
Use o comando <command>find</command> para localizar <filename>filename</filename> no diretório <filename>/usr</filename> e nos seus subdiretórios:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</userinput>
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</userinput>
You can use <literal>*</literal> as a wildcard in <parameter>"<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</parameter> (which should be in quotes). If you tell <command>find</command> to search in <filename>/</filename> instead of <filename>/usr</filename> it will look for the file(s) on all mounted filesystems, including the CDROM and the DOS partition.
Você pode usar <literal>*</literal> como um caractere curinga em <parameter>"<replaceable>filename</replaceable>"</parameter> (que deve estar entre aspas). Se você utilizar o comando <command>find</command> para procurar no <filename>/</filename> em vez de <filename>/usr</filename> ele procurará o(s) arquivo(s) em todos os sistemas de arquivos montados, incluindo o CDROM e a partição DOS.
An excellent book that explains <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> commands and utilities is Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle> (2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1996). There is also a lot of <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> information on the Internet.
Um excelente livro que explica os comandos e demais utilitários do <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> é o Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle> (Addison-Wesley, 1996, segunda edição). Há também toneladas de informações na internet sobre o <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>.
Next Steps
Próximos Passos
You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on your hard drive) and <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD's web site</link>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the CDROM as well as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them (get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg add <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></command>, where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the package). The CDROM has lists of the packages and ports with brief descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>, <filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and <filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in <filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the <literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs and program names respectively.
Agora você deve ter as ferramentas necessárias para explorar e editar arquivos, para que você possa colocar tudo em funcionamento. Há uma grande quantidade de informações no Handbook do FreeBSD (que provavelmente está no seu disco rígido) e no <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">site oficial do FreeBSD</link>. Uma grande variedade de pacotes e ports estão no CD-ROM e no site. O Handbook traz mais informações sobre como usá-los (obtenha o pacote, se existir, com o comando <command>pkg_add /cdrom/packages/All/<replaceable>packagename</replaceable></command>, onde <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> é o nome do pacote). O CDROM possui listas de pacotes e ports com descrições breves em <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>, <filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, e <filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, e descrições completas em <filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, onde os <literal>*</literal>s representam subdiretórios de tipos de programas e nomes de programas, respectivamente.
If you find the handbook too sophisticated (what with <command>lndir</command> and all) on installing ports from the CDROM, here is what usually works:
Se você achar o handbook muito sofisticado (com isso do <command>lndir</command> e tudo mais) ao instalar os ports do CDROM, veja a seguir o que geralmente funciona:
Find the port you want, say <command>kermit</command>. There will be a directory for it on the CDROM. Copy the subdirectory to <filename>/usr/local</filename> (a good place for software you add that should be available to all users) with:
Encontre o port que você deseja, digamos o <command>kermit</command>. Haverá um diretório para ele no CDROM. Copie o subdiretório para <filename>/usr/local</filename> (este é um bom lugar para softwares que você adicione no sistema e que devem estar disponíveis para todos os usuários) com:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</userinput>
This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> subdirectory that has all the files that the <command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.
Isto deve resultar em um subdiretório <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> que possui todos os arquivos que o subdiretório <command>kermit</command> no CDROM possui.
Next, create the directory <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> if it does not already exist using <command>mkdir</command>. Now check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a file with a name that indicates it is the port you want. Copy that file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; in recent versions you can skip this step, as FreeBSD will do it for you. In the case of <command>kermit</command>, there is no distfile.
Em seguida, crie o diretório <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> se ele ainda não existir usando o comando <command>mkdir</command>. Agora verifique em <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> um arquivo com um nome que indique o port que você deseja. Copie esse arquivo para <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; você pode pular esse passo em versões recentes, pois o FreeBSD fará isso para você. No caso do <command>kermit</command>, não existe um distfile.
Then <command>cd</command> to the subdirectory of <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> that has the file <filename>Makefile</filename>. Type
Em seguida, use o comando <command>cd</command> para ir para o subdiretório <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> que contém o arquivo <filename>Makefile</filename>. Digite
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make all install</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make all install</userinput>
During this process the port will FTP to get any compressed files it needs that it did not find on the CDROM or in <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you do not have your network running yet and there was no file for the port in <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get the distfile using another machine and copy it to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. Read <filename>Makefile</filename> (with <command>cat</command> or <command>more</command> or <command>view</command>) to find out where to go (the master distribution site) to get the file and what its name is. (Use binary file transfers!) Then go back to <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, find the directory with <filename>Makefile</filename>, and type <command>make all install</command>.
Durante este processo, o port irá usar o FTP para obter os arquivos compactados de que precisa e que ele não encontrou no CDROM ou no <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. Se a sua rede ainda não está configurada e não havia nenhum arquivo para o port em <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, você terá que pegar o distfile usando outra máquina e copiá-lo manualmente para <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. Leia o <filename>Makefile</filename> (com <command>cat</command> ou <command>more</command> ou <command>view</command>) para descobrir onde ir (o principal site de distribuição) para obter o arquivo e o nome dele. (Use transferências binárias de arquivos!) Em seguida volte para o diretório <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, encontre o diretório com <filename>Makefile</filename>, e digite <command>make all install</command>.
Your Working Environment
Seu ambiente de trabalho
Your shell is the most important part of your working environment. The shell is what interprets the commands you type on the command line, and thus communicates with the rest of the operating system. You can also write shell scripts a series of commands to be run without intervention.
Seu shell é a parte mais importante do seu ambiente de trabalho. O shell é o que interpreta os comandos que você digita na linha de comando e, assim, se comunica com o restante do sistema operacional. Você também pode escrever scripts de shell, que consiste em uma série de comandos para serem executados sem intervenção.
Two shells come installed with FreeBSD: <command>csh</command> and <command>sh</command>. <command>csh</command> is good for command-line work, but scripts should be written with <command>sh</command> (or <command>bash</command>). You can find out what shell you have by typing <command>echo $SHELL</command>.
Dois shells vem instalados com o FreeBSD: <command>csh</command> e <command>sh</command>. <command>csh</command> é bom para trabalhos na linha de comando, mas scripts devem ser escritos com o <command>sh</command> (ou <command>bash</command>). Você pode descobrir qual shell você utiliza executando o comando <command>echo $SHELL</command>.
The <command>csh</command> shell is okay, but <command>tcsh</command> does everything <command>csh</command> does and more. It allows you to recall commands with the arrow keys and edit them. It has tab-key completion of filenames (<command>csh</command> uses <keycap>Esc</keycap>), and it lets you switch to the directory you were last in with <command>cd -</command>. It is also much easier to alter your prompt with <command>tcsh</command>. It makes life a lot easier.
O <command>csh</command> é bom, mas o <command>tcsh</command> faz tudo que o <command>csh</command> faz e ainda mais. Ele permite recuperar comandos com as teclas de seta e editá-los. Ele permite usar a tecla tab para completar o nome dos arquivos (o <command>csh</command> usa a tecla <keycap>Esc</keycap>), e permite alternar o diretório em que você estava por último com o comando <command>cd -</command>. E também é muito mais fácil alterar o seu prompt com o <command>tcsh</command>. Ele tornará sua vida muito mais fácil.
Here are the three steps for installing a new shell:
Aqui estão os dois passos para instalar um novo shell:
Install the shell as a port or a package, just as you would any other port or package.
Instale o shell como um port ou um pacote, como faria com qualquer outro port ou pacote.
Use <command>chsh</command> to change your shell to <command>tcsh</command> permanently, or type <command>tcsh</command> at the prompt to change your shell without logging in again.
Use o comando <command>chsh</command> para alterar permanentemente seu shell para <command>tcsh</command>, ou digite <command>tcsh</command> no prompt para alterar seu shell sem precisar efetuar login novamente.

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