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FreeBSD Release Engineering
November 2001
BSDCon Europe
I've been involved in the development of FreeBSD based products since 1997 at Walnut Creek CDROM, BSDi, and now Wind River Systems. FreeBSD 4.4 was the first official release of FreeBSD that I played a significant part in.

<email>murray@FreeBSD.org</email>
<otheraddr xlink:href="https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/">https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/</otheraddr>
<personname> <firstname>Murray</firstname> <surname>Stokely</surname> </personname> <_:personblurb-1/> <affiliation> <_:address-2/> </affiliation>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.xml 51824 2018-06-12 18:54:46Z bcr $
This document is outdated and does not accurately describe the current release procedures of the FreeBSD Release Engineering team. It is retained for historical purposes. The current procedures used by the FreeBSD Release Engineering team are available in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-releng/article.html">FreeBSD Release Engineering</link> article.
This paper describes the approach used by the FreeBSD release engineering team to make production quality releases of the FreeBSD Operating System. It details the methodology used for the official FreeBSD releases and describes the tools available for those interested in producing customized FreeBSD releases for corporate rollouts or commercial productization.
Introduction
Subversion, <uri xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org">http://subversion.apache.org</uri>
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">FreeBSD committers</link>
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">FreeBSD Core Team</link>
The development of FreeBSD is a very open process. FreeBSD is comprised of contributions from thousands of people around the world. The FreeBSD Project provides Subversion <_:footnote-1/> access to the general public so that others can have access to log messages, diffs (patches) between development branches, and other productivity enhancements that formal source code management provides. This has been a huge help in attracting more talented developers to FreeBSD. However, I think everyone would agree that chaos would soon manifest if write access to the main repository was opened up to everyone on the Internet. Therefore only a <quote>select</quote> group of nearly 300 people are given write access to the Subversion repository. These <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">committers</link> <_:footnote-2/> are usually the people who do the bulk of FreeBSD development. An elected <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">Core Team</link> <_:footnote-3/> of developers provide some level of direction over the project.
The rapid pace of <systemitem>FreeBSD</systemitem> development makes the main development branch unsuitable for the everyday use by the general public. In particular, stabilizing efforts are required for polishing the development system into a production quality release. To solve this conflict, development continues on several parallel tracks. The main development branch is the <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis> or <emphasis>trunk</emphasis> of our Subversion tree, known as <quote>FreeBSD-CURRENT</quote> or <quote>-CURRENT</quote> for short.
A set of more stable branches are maintained, known as <quote>FreeBSD-STABLE</quote> or <quote>-STABLE</quote> for short. All branches live in a master Subversion repository maintained by the FreeBSD Project. FreeBSD-CURRENT is the <quote>bleeding-edge</quote> of FreeBSD development where all new changes first enter the system. FreeBSD-STABLE is the development branch from which major releases are made. Changes go into this branch at a different pace, and with the general assumption that they have first gone into FreeBSD-CURRENT and have been thoroughly tested by our user community.
The term <emphasis>stable</emphasis> in the name of the branch refers to the presumed Application Binary Interface stability, which is promised by the project. This means that a user application compiled on an older version of the system from the same branch works on a newer system from the same branch. The ABI stability has improved greatly from the compared to previous releases. In most cases, binaries from the older <emphasis>STABLE</emphasis> systems run unmodified on newer systems, including <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis>, assuming that the system management interfaces are not used.
buildworld
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/makeworld.html">Rebuilding "world"</link>
In the interim period between releases, weekly snapshots are built automatically by the FreeBSD Project build machines and made available for download from <systemitem>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/</systemitem>. The widespread availability of binary release snapshots, and the tendency of our user community to keep up with -STABLE development with Subversion and <quote><command>make</command> <_:buildtarget-1/></quote> <_:footnote-2/> helps to keep FreeBSD-STABLE in a very reliable condition even before the quality assurance activities ramp up pending a major release.
In addition to installation ISO snapshots, weekly virtual machine images are also provided for use with <application>VirtualBox</application>, <application>qemu</application>, or other popular emulation software. The virtual machine images can be downloaded from <systemitem>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/VM-IMAGES/</systemitem>.
The virtual machine images are approximately 150MB <citerefentry><refentrytitle>xz</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> compressed, and contain a 10GB sparse filesystem when attached to a virtual machine.
Bug reports and feature requests are continuously submitted by users throughout the release cycle. Problems reports are entered into our <application>Bugzilla</application> database through the web interface provided at <uri xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/support/bugreports.html">https://www.freebsd.org/support/bugreports.html</uri>.
To service our most conservative users, individual release branches were introduced with FreeBSD 4.3. These release branches are created shortly before a final release is made. After the release goes out, only the most critical security fixes and additions are merged onto the release branch. In addition to source updates via Subversion, binary patchkits are available to keep systems on the <emphasis>releng/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></emphasis> branches updated.
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