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The development of FreeBSD is a very open process. FreeBSD is comprised of contributions from thousands of people around the world. The FreeBSD Project provides Subversion <_:footnote-1/> access to the general public so that others can have access to log messages, diffs (patches) between development branches, and other productivity enhancements that formal source code management provides. This has been a huge help in attracting more talented developers to FreeBSD. However, I think everyone would agree that chaos would soon manifest if write access to the main repository was opened up to everyone on the Internet. Therefore only a <quote>select</quote> group of nearly 300 people are given write access to the Subversion repository. These <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">committers</link> <_:footnote-2/> are usually the people who do the bulk of FreeBSD development. An elected <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">Core Team</link> <_:footnote-3/> of developers provide some level of direction over the project.
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Context English Spanish State
November 2001 November 2001
BSDCon Europe BSDCon Europe
I've been involved in the development of FreeBSD based products since 1997 at Walnut Creek CDROM, BSDi, and now Wind River Systems. FreeBSD 4.4 was the first official release of FreeBSD that I played a significant part in. He estado involucrado en el desarrollo de productos basados en FreeBSD desde 1997 en Walnut Creek CDROM, BSDi, y ahora en Wind River Systems. FreeBSD 4.4 fue la primera versión oficial de FreeBSD en la que tuve una participación significativa.

<email>murray@FreeBSD.org</email>
<otheraddr xlink:href="https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/">https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/</otheraddr>

<email>murray@FreeBSD.org</email>
<otheraddr xlink:href="https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/">https://people.FreeBSD.org/~murray/</otheraddr>
<personname> <firstname>Murray</firstname> <surname>Stokely</surname> </personname> <_:personblurb-1/> <affiliation> <_:address-2/> </affiliation> <personname> <firstname>Murray</firstname> <surname>Stokely</surname> </personname> <_:personblurb-1/> <affiliation> <_:address-2/> </affiliation>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation. FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.xml 51824 2018-06-12 18:54:46Z bcr $ $FreeBSD$
This document is outdated and does not accurately describe the current release procedures of the FreeBSD Release Engineering team. It is retained for historical purposes. The current procedures used by the FreeBSD Release Engineering team are available in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-releng/article.html">FreeBSD Release Engineering</link> article. Este documento está desactualizado y no describe con precisión los procedimientos de lanzamientos actuales del equipo FreeBSD Release Engineering. Se conserva para fines históricos. Los procedimientos actuales utilizados por el equipo FreeBSD Release Engineering están disponibles en el artículo <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-releng/article.html">FreeBSD Release Engineering</link>.
This paper describes the approach used by the FreeBSD release engineering team to make production quality releases of the FreeBSD Operating System. It details the methodology used for the official FreeBSD releases and describes the tools available for those interested in producing customized FreeBSD releases for corporate rollouts or commercial productization. Este artículo describe la aproximación utilizada por el equipo de ingeniería de productos de FreeBSD para generar releases de calidad y listas para utilizar en entornos de producción. Se detalla la metodología utilizada para generar la release oficial de FreeBSD y se describen las herramientas disponibles para aquellas personas interesadas en generar sus propias releases a medida de sus necesidades, en particular para demostraciones de empresa o para comercializar el producto.
Introduction Introducción
Subversion, <uri xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org">http://subversion.apache.org</uri> Subversion, <uri xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org">http://subversion.apache.org</uri>
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">FreeBSD committers</link> <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">FreeBSD committers</link>
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">FreeBSD Core Team</link> <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">FreeBSD Core Team</link>
The development of FreeBSD is a very open process. FreeBSD is comprised of contributions from thousands of people around the world. The FreeBSD Project provides Subversion <_:footnote-1/> access to the general public so that others can have access to log messages, diffs (patches) between development branches, and other productivity enhancements that formal source code management provides. This has been a huge help in attracting more talented developers to FreeBSD. However, I think everyone would agree that chaos would soon manifest if write access to the main repository was opened up to everyone on the Internet. Therefore only a <quote>select</quote> group of nearly 300 people are given write access to the Subversion repository. These <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">committers</link> <_:footnote-2/> are usually the people who do the bulk of FreeBSD development. An elected <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">Core Team</link> <_:footnote-3/> of developers provide some level of direction over the project.
The rapid pace of <systemitem>FreeBSD</systemitem> development makes the main development branch unsuitable for the everyday use by the general public. In particular, stabilizing efforts are required for polishing the development system into a production quality release. To solve this conflict, development continues on several parallel tracks. The main development branch is the <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis> or <emphasis>trunk</emphasis> of our Subversion tree, known as <quote>FreeBSD-CURRENT</quote> or <quote>-CURRENT</quote> for short. El rápido ritmo de desarrollo de <systemitem>FreeBSD</systemitem> hace que la principal rama de desarrollo sea inadecuada para el uso diario del público en general. En particular, se requieren esfuerzos de estabilización para pulir el sistema de desarrollo en una versión de calidad de producción. Para resolver este conflicto, el desarrollo continúa en varias vías paralelas. La principal rama de desarrollo es la <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis> o <emphasis>tronco</emphasis> de nuestro árbol de Subversión, conocido como <quote>FreeBSD-CURRENT</quote> o <quote>-CURRENT</quote> para abreviar.
A set of more stable branches are maintained, known as <quote>FreeBSD-STABLE</quote> or <quote>-STABLE</quote> for short. All branches live in a master Subversion repository maintained by the FreeBSD Project. FreeBSD-CURRENT is the <quote>bleeding-edge</quote> of FreeBSD development where all new changes first enter the system. FreeBSD-STABLE is the development branch from which major releases are made. Changes go into this branch at a different pace, and with the general assumption that they have first gone into FreeBSD-CURRENT and have been thoroughly tested by our user community. Se mantiene un conjunto de ramas más estables, conocidas como <quote>FreeBSD-STABLE</quote> o <quote>-STABLE</quote> para abreviar. Todas las ramas viven en un repositorio maestro de Subversion mantenido por el Proyecto FreeBSD. FreeBSD-CURRENT es el <quote>punto de inflexión</quote> del desarrollo de FreeBSD donde todos los nuevos cambios entran primero en el sistema. FreeBSD-STABLE es la rama de desarrollo a partir de la cual se hacen las principales versiones. Los cambios entran en esta rama a un ritmo diferente, y con la suposición general de que primero han entrado en FreeBSD-CURRENT y han sido probados a fondo por nuestra comunidad de usuarios.
The term <emphasis>stable</emphasis> in the name of the branch refers to the presumed Application Binary Interface stability, which is promised by the project. This means that a user application compiled on an older version of the system from the same branch works on a newer system from the same branch. The ABI stability has improved greatly from the compared to previous releases. In most cases, binaries from the older <emphasis>STABLE</emphasis> systems run unmodified on newer systems, including <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis>, assuming that the system management interfaces are not used. El término <emphasis>estable</emphasis> en el nombre de la rama se refiere a la presunta estabilidad de la interfaz binaria de la aplicación, que se garantiza en el proyecto. Esto significa que una aplicación de usuario compilada en una versión antigua del sistema de la misma rama funciona en un sistema más nuevo de la misma rama. La estabilidad de la ABI ha mejorado mucho en comparación con las versiones anteriores. En la mayoría de los casos, los binarios de los sistemas <emphasis>STABLE</emphasis> más antiguos funcionan sin modificaciones en los sistemas más nuevos, incluido <emphasis>HEAD</emphasis>, suponiendo que no se utilizan las interfaces de gestión del sistema.
buildworld buildworld
<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/makeworld.html">Rebuilding "world"</link>
In the interim period between releases, weekly snapshots are built automatically by the FreeBSD Project build machines and made available for download from <systemitem>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/</systemitem>. The widespread availability of binary release snapshots, and the tendency of our user community to keep up with -STABLE development with Subversion and <quote><command>make</command> <_:buildtarget-1/></quote> <_:footnote-2/> helps to keep FreeBSD-STABLE in a very reliable condition even before the quality assurance activities ramp up pending a major release.
In addition to installation ISO snapshots, weekly virtual machine images are also provided for use with <application>VirtualBox</application>, <application>qemu</application>, or other popular emulation software. The virtual machine images can be downloaded from <systemitem>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/VM-IMAGES/</systemitem>. Además de las instantáneas ISO de instalación, también se proporcionan imágenes semanales de máquinas virtuales para su uso con <application>VirtualBox</application>, <application>qemu</application> u otro software de emulación popular. Las imágenes de la máquina virtual pueden ser descargadas desde <systemitem>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/VM-IMAGES/</systemitem>.
The virtual machine images are approximately 150MB <citerefentry><refentrytitle>xz</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> compressed, and contain a 10GB sparse filesystem when attached to a virtual machine. Las imágenes de la máquina virtual son de aproximadamente 150MB <citerefentry><refentrytitle>xz</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> comprimidos, y contienen un sistema de archivos dispersos de 10GB cuando se adjuntan a una máquina virtual.
Bug reports and feature requests are continuously submitted by users throughout the release cycle. Problems reports are entered into our <application>Bugzilla</application> database through the web interface provided at <uri xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/support/bugreports.html">https://www.freebsd.org/support/bugreports.html</uri>.
To service our most conservative users, individual release branches were introduced with FreeBSD 4.3. These release branches are created shortly before a final release is made. After the release goes out, only the most critical security fixes and additions are merged onto the release branch. In addition to source updates via Subversion, binary patchkits are available to keep systems on the <emphasis>releng/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></emphasis> branches updated. Para atender a nuestros usuarios más conservadores, se introdujeron ramas de liberación individuales con FreeBSD 4.3. Estas ramas de liberación se crean poco antes de que se haga una liberación final. Después de que la versión sale, sólo los arreglos de seguridad más críticos y las adiciones se fusionan en la rama de la versión. Además de las actualizaciones de las fuentes a través de Subversion, hay disponibles parches binarios para mantener actualizados los sistemas en las ramas <emphasis>releng/<replaceable>X</replaceable>.<replaceable>Y</replaceable></emphasis>.
What This Article Describes Lo que describe este artículo
The following sections of this article describe: Las siguientes secciones de este artículo describen:
The different phases of the release engineering process leading up to the actual system build. Las diferentes fases del proceso de ingeniería de liberación que conducen a la construcción del sistema real.
The actual build process. El proceso de construcción actual.
How the base release may be extended by third parties. Cómo la liberación de la base puede ser extendida por terceros.

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