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I would like to thank Jordan Hubbard for giving me the opportunity to take on some of the release engineering responsibilities for FreeBSD 4.4 and also for all of his work throughout the years making FreeBSD what it is today. Of course the release would not have been possible without all of the release-related work done by Satoshi Asami <email>asami@FreeBSD.org</email>, Steve Price <email>steve@FreeBSD.org</email>, Bruce A. Mah <email>bmah@FreeBSD.org</email>, Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, David O'Brien <email>obrien@FreeBSD.org</email>, Kris Kennaway <email>kris@FreeBSD.org</email>, John Baldwin <email>jhb@FreeBSD.org</email> and the rest of the FreeBSD development community. I would also like to thank Rodney W. Grimes <email>rgrimes@FreeBSD.org</email>, Poul-Henning Kamp <email>phk@FreeBSD.org</email>, and others who worked on the release engineering tools in the very early days of FreeBSD. This article was influenced by release engineering documents from the CSRG <_:footnote-1/> , the NetBSD Project, <_:footnote-2/> , and John Baldwin's proposed release engineering process notes. <_:footnote-3/>
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Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
<uri xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-pxe-nfs.html">@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-pxe-nfs.html</uri> <uri xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-pxe-nfs.html">@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-pxe-nfs.html</uri>
The FreeBSD system installation and configuration tool, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, can be scripted to provide automated installs for large sites. This functionality can be used in conjunction with <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> PXE <_:footnote-1/> to bootstrap systems from the network. A ferramenta de instalação e configuração do sistema FreeBSD, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, pode ser programada para fornecer instalações automatizadas para sites grandes. Essa funcionalidade pode ser usada em conjunto com <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> PXE <_:footnote-1/> para inicializar sistemas da rede.
Lessons Learned from FreeBSD 4.4 Lições Aprendidas do FreeBSD 4.4
The release engineering process for 4.4 formally began on August 1st, 2001. After that date all commits to the <literal>RELENG_4</literal> branch of FreeBSD had to be explicitly approved by the Release Engineering Team <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email>. The first release candidate for the x86 architecture was released on August 16, followed by 4 more release candidates leading up to the final release on September 18th. The security officer was very involved in the last week of the process as several security issues were found in the earlier release candidates. A total of over <emphasis>500</emphasis> emails were sent to the Release Engineering Team <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email> in little over a month. O processo de engenharia de release do 4.4 começou formalmente em 1º de agosto de 2001. Após essa data, todos os commits da branch <literal>RELENG_4</literal> do FreeBSD tiveram que ser explicitamente aprovados pela Equipe de Engenharia de Release <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email>. O primeiro release candidate para a arquitetura x86 foi lançado em 16 de agosto, seguido por mais 4 candidatos a versão que antecederam a versão final em 18 de setembro. O agente de segurança esteve muito envolvido na última semana do processo, pois vários problemas de segurança foram encontrados nos candidatos anteriores. Um total de mais de <emphasis>500</emphasis> e-mails foram enviados para a Equipe de Engenharia de Release <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email> em pouco mais de um mês.
Our user community has made it very clear that the security and stability of a FreeBSD release should not be sacrificed for any self-imposed deadlines or target release dates. The FreeBSD Project has grown tremendously over its lifetime and the need for standardized release engineering procedures has never been more apparent. This will become even more important as FreeBSD is ported to new platforms. Nossa comunidade de usuários deixou bem claro que a segurança e a estabilidade de uma versão do FreeBSD não devem ser sacrificadas por quaisquer prazos auto-impostos ou datas-alvo de lançamento. O projeto FreeBSD cresceu tremendamente ao longo de sua existência e a necessidade de procedimentos padronizados de engenharia de versões nunca foi tão aparente. Isso se tornará ainda mais importante à medida que o FreeBSD for portado para novas plataformas.
Future Directions Direções futuras
It is imperative for our release engineering activities to scale with our growing userbase. Along these lines we are working very hard to document the procedures involved in producing FreeBSD releases. É imperativo que nossas atividades de engenharia de release sejam escaladas com nossa crescente base de usuários. Nessa linha, estamos trabalhando muito para documentar os procedimentos envolvidos na produção de versões do FreeBSD.
<emphasis>Parallelism</emphasis> - Certain portions of the release build are actually <quote>embarrassingly parallel</quote>. Most of the tasks are very I/O intensive, so having multiple high-speed disk drives is actually more important than using multiple processors in speeding up the <command>make release</command> process. If multiple disks are used for different hierarchies in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> environment, then the CVS checkout of the <filename>ports</filename> and <filename>doc</filename> trees can be happening simultaneously as the <command>make world</command> on another disk. Using a <acronym>RAID</acronym> solution (hardware or software) can significantly decrease the overall build time. <emphasis>Paralelismo</emphasis> - Algumas partes da compilação da release são, na verdade, <quote>embaraçosamente paralelas</quote>. A maioria das tarefas é muito intensiva em I/O, portanto, ter várias unidades de disco de alta velocidade é realmente mais importante do que usar vários processadores para acelerar o processo do <command>make release</command>. Se vários discos forem usados para hierarquias diferentes no ambiente <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>, o CVS checkout das árvores do <filename>ports</filename> e do <filename>doc</filename> podem estar acontecendo simultaneamente como o <command>make world</command> em outro disco. Usar uma solução <acronym>RAID</acronym> (hardware ou software) pode diminuir significativamente o tempo de compilação geral.
<emphasis>Cross-building releases</emphasis> - Building IA-64 or Alpha release on x86 hardware? <command>make TARGET=ia64 release</command>. <emphasis>Releases cross-building</emphasis> - Criação do release IA-64 ou Alpha em hardware x86? Use o comando <command>make TARGET=ia64 release</command>.
<emphasis>Regression Testing</emphasis> - We need better automated correctness testing for FreeBSD. <emphasis>Teste de regressão</emphasis> - Precisamos de melhores testes automatizados para o FreeBSD.
<emphasis>Installation Tools</emphasis> - Our installation program has long since outlived its intended life span. Several projects are under development to provide a more advanced installation mechanism. The libh project was one such project that aimed to provide an intelligent new package framework and GUI installation program. <emphasis>Ferramentas de instalação</emphasis> - Nosso programa de instalação há muito tempo ultrapassou à sua expectativa de vida útil. Vários projetos estão em desenvolvimento para fornecer um mecanismo de instalação mais avançado. O projeto libh era um desses projetos que visava fornecer um novo e inteligente framework de pacotes e um programa de instalação GUI.
Acknowledgements Agradecimentos
Marshall Kirk McKusick, Michael J. Karels, and Keith Bostic: <link xlink:href="http://docs.FreeBSD.org/44doc/papers/releng.html"> <emphasis>The Release Engineering of 4.3BSD</emphasis></link> Marshall Kirk McKusick, Michael J. Karels e Keith Bostic: <link xlink:href="http://docs.FreeBSD.org/44doc/papers/releng.html"> <emphasis>A Engenharia de Release do 4.3BSD</emphasis></link>
NetBSD Developer Documentation: Release Engineering <uri xlink:href="http://www.NetBSD.org/developers/releng/index.html">http://www.NetBSD.org/developers/releng/index.html</uri> Documentação do desenvolvedor do NetBSD: Engenharia de Release <uri xlink:href="http://www.NetBSD.org/developers/releng/index.html">http://www.NetBSD.org/developers/releng/index.html</uri>
John Baldwin's FreeBSD Release Engineering Proposal <uri xlink:href="https://people.FreeBSD.org/~jhb/docs/releng.txt">https://people.FreeBSD.org/~jhb/docs/releng.txt</uri> Proposta de engenharia de Release do FreeBSD de John Baldwin <uri xlink:href="https://people.FreeBSD.org/~jhb/docs/releng.txt">https://people.FreeBSD.org/~jhb/docs/releng.txt</uri>
I would like to thank Jordan Hubbard for giving me the opportunity to take on some of the release engineering responsibilities for FreeBSD 4.4 and also for all of his work throughout the years making FreeBSD what it is today. Of course the release would not have been possible without all of the release-related work done by Satoshi Asami <email>asami@FreeBSD.org</email>, Steve Price <email>steve@FreeBSD.org</email>, Bruce A. Mah <email>bmah@FreeBSD.org</email>, Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, David O'Brien <email>obrien@FreeBSD.org</email>, Kris Kennaway <email>kris@FreeBSD.org</email>, John Baldwin <email>jhb@FreeBSD.org</email> and the rest of the FreeBSD development community. I would also like to thank Rodney W. Grimes <email>rgrimes@FreeBSD.org</email>, Poul-Henning Kamp <email>phk@FreeBSD.org</email>, and others who worked on the release engineering tools in the very early days of FreeBSD. This article was influenced by release engineering documents from the CSRG <_:footnote-1/> , the NetBSD Project, <_:footnote-2/> , and John Baldwin's proposed release engineering process notes. <_:footnote-3/> Eu gostaria de agradecer a Jordan Hubbard por me dar a oportunidade de assumir algumas das responsabilidades de engenharia de release do FreeBSD 4.4 e também por todo o seu trabalho ao longo dos anos fazendo do FreeBSD o que é hoje. É claro quea Release não teria sido possível sem todo o trabalho relacionado a release feito por Satoshi Asami <email>asami@FreeBSD.org</email>, Steve Price <email>steve@FreeBSD.org</email>, Bruce A. Mah <email>bmah@FreeBSD.org</email>, Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, David O'Brien <email>obrien@FreeBSD.org</email>, Kris Kennaway <email>kris@FreeBSD.org</email>, John Baldwin <email>jhb@FreeBSD.org</email> e o resto da comunidade de desenvolvimento do FreeBSD. Eu também gostaria de agradecer a Rodney W. Grimes <email>rgrimes@FreeBSD.org</email>, Poul-Henning Kamp <email>phk@FreeBSD.org</email>, e outros que trabalharam nas ferramentas de engenharia de release nos primeiros dias do FreeBSD. Este artigo foi influenciado por documentos de engenharia de release do CSRG <_:footnote-1/>, o Projeto NetBSD, <_:footnote-2/>, e as notas de processo de engenharia de release propostas por John Baldwin. <_:footnote-3/>

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I would like to thank Jordan Hubbard for giving me the opportunity to take on some of the release engineering responsibilities for FreeBSD 4.4 and also for all of his work throughout the years making FreeBSD what it is today. Of course the release would not have been possible without all of the release-related work done by Satoshi Asami <email>asami@FreeBSD.org</email>, Steve Price <email>steve@FreeBSD.org</email>, Bruce A. Mah <email>bmah@FreeBSD.org</email>, Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, David O'Brien <email>obrien@FreeBSD.org</email>, Kris Kennaway <email>kris@FreeBSD.org</email>, John Baldwin <email>jhb@FreeBSD.org</email> and the rest of the FreeBSD development community. I would also like to thank Rodney W. Grimes <email>rgrimes@FreeBSD.org</email>, Poul-Henning Kamp <email>phk@FreeBSD.org</email>, and others who worked on the release engineering tools in the very early days of FreeBSD. This article was influenced by release engineering documents from the CSRG <_:footnote-1/> , the NetBSD Project, <_:footnote-2/> , and John Baldwin's proposed release engineering process notes. <_:footnote-3/>
Eu gostaria de agradecer a Jordan Hubbard por me dar a oportunidade de assumir algumas das responsabilidades de engenharia de release do FreeBSD 4.4 e também por todo o seu trabalho ao longo dos anos fazendo do FreeBSD o que é hoje. É claro quea Release não teria sido possível sem todo o trabalho relacionado a release feito por Satoshi Asami <email>asami@FreeBSD.org</email>, Steve Price <email>steve@FreeBSD.org</email>, Bruce A. Mah <email>bmah@FreeBSD.org</email>, Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, David O'Brien <email>obrien@FreeBSD.org</email>, Kris Kennaway <email>kris@FreeBSD.org</email>, John Baldwin <email>jhb@FreeBSD.org</email> e o resto da comunidade de desenvolvimento do FreeBSD. Eu também gostaria de agradecer a Rodney W. Grimes <email>rgrimes@FreeBSD.org</email>, Poul-Henning Kamp <email>phk@FreeBSD.org</email>, e outros que trabalharam nas ferramentas de engenharia de release nos primeiros dias do FreeBSD. Este artigo foi influenciado por documentos de engenharia de release do CSRG <_:footnote-1/>, o Projeto NetBSD, <_:footnote-2/>, e as notas de processo de engenharia de release propostas por John Baldwin. <_:footnote-3/>
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