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FreeBSD and Solid State Devices

<email>john@kozubik.com</email>
<personname> <firstname>John</firstname> <surname>Kozubik</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<year>2001</year> <year>2009</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Copyright
Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.xml 44923 2014-05-23 17:36:54Z bcr $
This article covers the use of solid state disk devices in FreeBSD to create embedded systems.
Embedded systems have the advantage of increased stability due to the lack of integral moving parts (hard drives). Account must be taken, however, for the generally low disk space available in the system and the durability of the storage medium.
Specific topics to be covered include the types and attributes of solid state media suitable for disk use in FreeBSD, kernel options that are of interest in such an environment, the <filename>rc.initdiskless</filename> mechanisms that automate the initialization of such systems and the need for read-only filesystems, and building filesystems from scratch. The article will conclude with some general strategies for small and read-only FreeBSD environments.
Solid State Disk Devices
The scope of this article will be limited to solid state disk devices made from flash memory. Flash memory is a solid state memory (no moving parts) that is non-volatile (the memory maintains data even after all power sources have been disconnected). Flash memory can withstand tremendous physical shock and is reasonably fast (the flash memory solutions covered in this article are slightly slower than a EIDE hard disk for write operations, and much faster for read operations). One very important aspect of flash memory, the ramifications of which will be discussed later in this article, is that each sector has a limited rewrite capacity. You can only write, erase, and write again to a sector of flash memory a certain number of times before the sector becomes permanently unusable. Although many flash memory products automatically map bad blocks, and although some even distribute write operations evenly throughout the unit, the fact remains that there exists a limit to the amount of writing that can be done to the device. Competitive units have between 1,000,000 and 10,000,000 writes per sector in their specification. This figure varies due to the temperature of the environment.
Specifically, we will be discussing ATA compatible compact-flash units, which are quite popular as storage media for digital cameras. Of particular interest is the fact that they pin out directly to the IDE bus and are compatible with the ATA command set. Therefore, with a very simple and low-cost adaptor, these devices can be attached directly to an IDE bus in a computer. Once implemented in this manner, operating systems such as FreeBSD see the device as a normal hard disk (albeit small).
Other solid state disk solutions do exist, but their expense, obscurity, and relative unease of use places them beyond the scope of this article.
Kernel Options
ComponentTranslation
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_solid-state
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Following strings have same context and same source.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_faq
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_fonts
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_filtering-bridge
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_nanobsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_problem-reports
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_serial-uart
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_arch-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ipsec-must
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_new-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pam
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-users
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-releng
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_gjournal-desktop
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_rc-scripting
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_cups
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_explaining-bsd
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-questions
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_freebsd-update-server
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_geom-class
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_hubs
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_pr-guidelines
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_remote-install
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_vm-design
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_ldap-auth
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_linux-emulation
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_porters-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributors
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_committers-guide
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_contributing
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_developers-handbook
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_building-products
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.

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(itstool) path: legalnotice/para
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