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Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
206/2060
Context English Spanish State
_ translator-credits Sergio Carlavilla carlavilla@FreeBSD.org, 2019
FreeBSD and Solid State Devices FreeBSD y las unidades de estado sólido (SSD)

<email>john@kozubik.com</email>

<email>john@kozubik.com</email>
<personname> <firstname>John</firstname> <surname>Kozubik</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation> <personname> <firstname>John</firstname> <surname>Kozubik</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<year>2001</year> <year>2009</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder> <year>2001</year> <year>2009</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
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Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified. Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
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$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.xml 44923 2014-05-23 17:36:54Z bcr $ $FreeBSD$
This article covers the use of solid state disk devices in FreeBSD to create embedded systems. Este artículo trata sobre el uso de discos de estado sólido en FreeBSD para crear sistemas embebidos.
Embedded systems have the advantage of increased stability due to the lack of integral moving parts (hard drives). Account must be taken, however, for the generally low disk space available in the system and the durability of the storage medium. Los sistemas embebidos tienen la ventaja de una mayor estabilidad por la falta de partes móviles (discos duros). Sin embargo, se debe tener en cuenta que generalmente el espacio disponible para el sistema y la durabilidad del medio de almacenamiento son menores.
Specific topics to be covered include the types and attributes of solid state media suitable for disk use in FreeBSD, kernel options that are of interest in such an environment, the <filename>rc.initdiskless</filename> mechanisms that automate the initialization of such systems and the need for read-only filesystems, and building filesystems from scratch. The article will conclude with some general strategies for small and read-only FreeBSD environments. Los temas específicos que se abordarán incluyen los tipos y atributos de los dispositivos de estado sólido adecuados para su uso como disco en FreeBSD, las opciones del kernel que son interesantes para dicho entorno, los mecanismos de <filename>rc.initdiskless</filename> que automatizan el inicio de dichos sistemas, la necesidad de sistemas de archivos de solo lectura y hacer sistemas de archivos desde cero. El artículo concluirá con algunas estrategias generales para entornos pequeños y de solo lectura de FreeBSD.
Solid State Disk Devices Dispositivos de disco de estado sólido
The scope of this article will be limited to solid state disk devices made from flash memory. Flash memory is a solid state memory (no moving parts) that is non-volatile (the memory maintains data even after all power sources have been disconnected). Flash memory can withstand tremendous physical shock and is reasonably fast (the flash memory solutions covered in this article are slightly slower than a EIDE hard disk for write operations, and much faster for read operations). One very important aspect of flash memory, the ramifications of which will be discussed later in this article, is that each sector has a limited rewrite capacity. You can only write, erase, and write again to a sector of flash memory a certain number of times before the sector becomes permanently unusable. Although many flash memory products automatically map bad blocks, and although some even distribute write operations evenly throughout the unit, the fact remains that there exists a limit to the amount of writing that can be done to the device. Competitive units have between 1,000,000 and 10,000,000 writes per sector in their specification. This figure varies due to the temperature of the environment. El alcance de este artículo se limitará a dispositivos de estado sólido basados en memoria flash. La memoria flash es una memoria de estado sólido (sin partes móviles) que no es volátil (la memoria mantiene los datos incluso después de que se hayan desconectado todas las fuentes de alimentación). La memoria flash puede soportar un enorme impacto físico y es bastante rápida (las soluciones de memoria flash que se tratan en este artículo son un poco más lentas que un disco duro EIDE en operaciones de escritura y mucho más rápidos en operaciones de lectura). Un aspecto muy importante de la memoria flash, cuyas repercusiones se tratarán más adelante, es que cada sector tiene una capacidad de reescritura limitada. Solo puede escribir, borrar y volver a escribir en un sector de la memoria flash varias veces antes de que quede permanentemente inutilizable. Aunque muchos productos de memoria flash mapean automáticamente los bloques defectuosos y algunos incluso distribuyen las operaciones de escritura de manera uniforme en toda la unidad, la verdad es que hay un límite en la cantidad de escrituras que se pueden hacer al dispositivo. Las unidades más competitivas tienen entre 1.000.000 y 10.000.000 millones de escrituras por sector en sus especificaciones. Esta cifra varía debido a la temperatura del ambiente.
Specifically, we will be discussing ATA compatible compact-flash units, which are quite popular as storage media for digital cameras. Of particular interest is the fact that they pin out directly to the IDE bus and are compatible with the ATA command set. Therefore, with a very simple and low-cost adaptor, these devices can be attached directly to an IDE bus in a computer. Once implemented in this manner, operating systems such as FreeBSD see the device as a normal hard disk (albeit small). Específicamente, discutiremos las unidades flash compactas compatibles con ATA, las cuales son bastante populares como medios de almacenamiento para cámaras digitales. Es de particular interés el hecho de que se conecten directamente al bus IDE y sean compatibles con el conjunto de comandos ATA. Por lo tanto, con un adaptador muy simple y de bajo coste, estos dispositivos se pueden conectar directamente al bus IDE en un ordenador. Una vez implementado de esta forma, los sistemas operativos como FreeBSD ven el dispositivo como un disco duro normal (aunque sea pequeño).
Other solid state disk solutions do exist, but their expense, obscurity, and relative unease of use places them beyond the scope of this article. Existen otras soluciones de disco de estado sólido, pero su coste, opacidad y su relativa dificultad de uso los colocan más allá del alcance de este artículo.
Kernel Options Opciones del kernel
A few kernel options are of specific interest to those creating an embedded FreeBSD system. Algunas opciones del kernel son de especial interés para aquellos que crean un sistema FreeBSD embebido.
All embedded FreeBSD systems that use flash memory as system disk will be interested in memory disks and memory filesystems. Because of the limited number of writes that can be done to flash memory, the disk and the filesystems on the disk will most likely be mounted read-only. In this environment, filesystems such as <filename>/tmp</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> are mounted as memory filesystems to allow the system to create logs and update counters and temporary files. Memory filesystems are a critical component to a successful solid state FreeBSD implementation. Todos los sistemas FreeBSD embebidos que utilizan memorias flash como disco para el sistema estarán interesados en utilizar discos y sistemas de archivos cargados en memoria. Debido al número limitado de escrituras que se pueden hacer en la memoria flash, el disco y los sistemas de archivos probablemente se montarán como de solo lectura. En este entorno, los sistemas de archivos como <filename>/tmp</filename> y <filename>/var</filename> se montan como sistemas de archivos en memoria
para permitir que el sistema cree registros y actualice los contadores y los archivos temporales. Los sistemas de archivos en memoria son un componente crítico para una implementación exitosa de FreeBSD en dispositivos de estado sólido.
You should make sure the following lines exist in your kernel configuration file: Asegúrese de que existen las siguientes líneas en el archivo de configuración del kernel:
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This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_solid-state Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
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Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_handbook Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_faq Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

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