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(itstool) path: legalnotice/para
Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
206/2060
Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
_ translator-credits Edson Brandi, ebrandi@FreeBSD.org, 2018
Mauro Risonho de Paula Assumpção, mauro.risonho@gmail.com, 2018
Silvio Ap Silva, contato@kanazuchi.com, 2018
Danilo G. Baio, dbaio@FreeBSD.org, 2018
FreeBSD and Solid State Devices FreeBSD e Dispositivos de Estado Sólido

<email>john@kozubik.com</email>

<email>john@kozubik.com</email>
<personname> <firstname>John</firstname> <surname>Kozubik</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation> <personname> <firstname>John</firstname> <surname>Kozubik</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>
<year>2001</year> <year>2009</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder> <year>2001</year> <year>2009</year> <holder>Projeto de Documentação do FreeBSD</holder>
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation. FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Copyright Copyright
Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified. Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.xml 44923 2014-05-23 17:36:54Z bcr $ $FreeBSD: head/pt_BR.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/pt_BR.po 52241 2018-09-09 12:48:32Z ebrandi $
This article covers the use of solid state disk devices in FreeBSD to create embedded systems. Este artigo aborda o uso de dispositivos de disco de estado sólido no FreeBSD para criar sistemas embarcados.
Embedded systems have the advantage of increased stability due to the lack of integral moving parts (hard drives). Account must be taken, however, for the generally low disk space available in the system and the durability of the storage medium. Os sistemas embarcados têm a vantagem de uma maior estabilidade devido à ausência de partes móveis (discos rígidos). No entanto, é preciso ter em conta que o espaço disponível em disco é geralmente baixo no sistema e a durabilidade do meio de armazenamento.
Specific topics to be covered include the types and attributes of solid state media suitable for disk use in FreeBSD, kernel options that are of interest in such an environment, the <filename>rc.initdiskless</filename> mechanisms that automate the initialization of such systems and the need for read-only filesystems, and building filesystems from scratch. The article will conclude with some general strategies for small and read-only FreeBSD environments. Tópicos específicos a serem abordados incluem os tipos e atributos das mídia de estado sólido adequadas para uso como disco no FreeBSD, opções de kernel que são de interesse em tal ambiente, os mecanismos <filename>rc.initdiskless</filename> que automatizam a inicialização de tais sistemas e a necessidade de sistemas de arquivos read-only e a construção de sistemas de arquivos a partir do zero. O artigo será concluído com algumas estratégias gerais para ambientes FreeBSD pequenos e read-only .
Solid State Disk Devices Dispositivos de Disco de Estado Sólido
The scope of this article will be limited to solid state disk devices made from flash memory. Flash memory is a solid state memory (no moving parts) that is non-volatile (the memory maintains data even after all power sources have been disconnected). Flash memory can withstand tremendous physical shock and is reasonably fast (the flash memory solutions covered in this article are slightly slower than a EIDE hard disk for write operations, and much faster for read operations). One very important aspect of flash memory, the ramifications of which will be discussed later in this article, is that each sector has a limited rewrite capacity. You can only write, erase, and write again to a sector of flash memory a certain number of times before the sector becomes permanently unusable. Although many flash memory products automatically map bad blocks, and although some even distribute write operations evenly throughout the unit, the fact remains that there exists a limit to the amount of writing that can be done to the device. Competitive units have between 1,000,000 and 10,000,000 writes per sector in their specification. This figure varies due to the temperature of the environment. O escopo deste artigo será limitado a dispositivos de disco de estado sólido feitos de memória flash. A memória flash é uma memória de estado sólido (sem partes móveis) que é não volátil (a memória mantém os dados mesmo depois de todas as fontes de energia terem sido desconectadas). A memória flash pode suportar um enorme choque físico e é razoavelmente rápida (as soluções de memória flash abordadas neste artigo são um pouco mais lentas que um disco rígido EIDE para operações de gravação e muito mais rápidas para operações de leitura). Um aspecto muito importante da memória flash, cujas ramificações serão discutidas mais adiante neste artigo, é que cada setor tem uma capacidade limitada de reescrita. Você só pode gravar, apagar e gravar novamente em um setor de memória flash um certo número de vezes antes que o setor fique permanentemente inutilizável. Embora muitos produtos de memória flash mapeiam automaticamente os blocos defeituosos, e embora alguns até distribuam operações de gravação uniformemente por toda a unidade, a verdade é que existe um limite para a quantidade de escrita que pode ser feita no dispositivo. Unidades competitivas possuem entre 1.000.000 e 10.000.000 gravações por setor em suas especificações. Este valor varia com à temperatura do ambiente.
Specifically, we will be discussing ATA compatible compact-flash units, which are quite popular as storage media for digital cameras. Of particular interest is the fact that they pin out directly to the IDE bus and are compatible with the ATA command set. Therefore, with a very simple and low-cost adaptor, these devices can be attached directly to an IDE bus in a computer. Once implemented in this manner, operating systems such as FreeBSD see the device as a normal hard disk (albeit small). Especificamente, estaremos discutindo unidades compact-flash compatíveis com ATA, as quais são bastante populares como mídia de armazenamento para câmeras digitais. De particular interesse é o fato de que eles são fixados diretamente no barramento IDE e são compatíveis com o conjunto de comandos ATA. Portanto, com um adaptador muito simples e de baixo custo, esses dispositivos podem ser conectados diretamente a um barramento IDE em um computador. Uma vez implementado desta maneira, sistemas operacionais como o FreeBSD vêem o dispositivo como um disco rígido normal (embora pequeno).
Other solid state disk solutions do exist, but their expense, obscurity, and relative unease of use places them beyond the scope of this article. Outras soluções de disco de estado sólido existem, mas seu custo, obscuridade e relativa dificuldade de uso os colocam além do escopo deste artigo.
Kernel Options Opções do Kernel
A few kernel options are of specific interest to those creating an embedded FreeBSD system. Algumas opções do kernel são de interesse específico para aqueles que criam sistemas FreeBSD embarcados.
All embedded FreeBSD systems that use flash memory as system disk will be interested in memory disks and memory filesystems. Because of the limited number of writes that can be done to flash memory, the disk and the filesystems on the disk will most likely be mounted read-only. In this environment, filesystems such as <filename>/tmp</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> are mounted as memory filesystems to allow the system to create logs and update counters and temporary files. Memory filesystems are a critical component to a successful solid state FreeBSD implementation. Todos os sistemas embarcados FreeBSD que usam memória flash como disco para o sistema estarão interessados ​​em usar discos em memória e sistemas de arquivos em memória. Devido ao número limitado de gravações que podem ser feitas na memória flash, o disco e os sistemas de arquivos no disco provavelmente serão montados como read-only. Nesse ambiente, sistemas de arquivos tais como <filename>/tmp</filename> e <filename>/var</filename> são montados como sistemas de arquivos em memória para permitir que o sistema crie logs e atualize contadores e arquivos temporários. Os sistemas de arquivos em memória são um componente crítico para uma implementação bem-sucedida do FreeBSD em dispositivos de estado sólido.
You should make sure the following lines exist in your kernel configuration file: Você deve ter certeza de que as seguintes linhas existem no seu arquivo de configuração do kernel:
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This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc/articles_solid-state Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
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Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_faq Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_developers-handbook Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Translated FreeBSD Doc/books_porters-handbook Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
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(itstool) path: legalnotice/para
Source string location
article.translate.xml:72
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articles/pt_BR/solid-state.po, string 9