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(itstool) path: sect2/title
Context English State
<filename>vinum</filename> objects are assigned device nodes in the hierarchy <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. The configuration shown above would cause <filename>vinum</filename> to create the following device nodes:
Device entries for each volume. These are the main devices used by <filename>vinum</filename>. The configuration above would include the devices <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> and <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>.
All volumes get direct entries under <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>.
The directories <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, and <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/sd</filename>, which contain device nodes for each plex and for each subdisk, respectively.
For example, consider the following configuration file:
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
After processing this file, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> creates the following structure in <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>:
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
Although it is recommended that plexes and subdisks should not be allocated specific names, <filename>vinum</filename> drives must be named. This makes it possible to move a drive to a different location and still recognize it automatically. Drive names may be up to 32 characters long.
Creating File Systems
Volumes appear to the system to be identical to disks, with one exception. Unlike <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drives, <filename>vinum</filename> does not partition volumes, which thus do not contain a partition table. This has required modification to some disk utilities, notably <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, so that it does not try to interpret the last letter of a <filename>vinum</filename> volume name as a partition identifier. For example, a disk drive may have a name like <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> or <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. These names represent the first partition (<filename>a</filename>) on the first (0) IDE disk (<filename>ad</filename>) and the eighth partition (<filename>h</filename>) on the third (2) SCSI disk (<filename>da</filename>) respectively. By contrast, a <filename>vinum</filename> volume might be called <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, which has no relationship with a partition name.
In order to create a file system on this volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput>
Configuring <filename>vinum</filename>
The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel does not contain <filename>vinum</filename>. It is possible to build a custom kernel which includes <filename>vinum</filename>, but this is not recommended. The standard way to start <filename>vinum</filename> is as a kernel module. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is not needed because when <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starts, it checks whether the module has been loaded, and if it is not, it loads it automatically.
Startup
<filename>vinum</filename> stores configuration information on the disk slices in essentially the same form as in the configuration files. When reading from the configuration database, <filename>vinum</filename> recognizes a number of keywords which are not allowed in the configuration files. For example, a disk configuration might contain the following text:
volume myvol state up
volume bigraid state down
plex name myvol.p0 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p1 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p2 state init org striped 512b vol myvol
plex name bigraid.p0 state initializing org raid5 512b vol bigraid
sd name myvol.p0.s0 drive a plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p0.s1 drive b plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p1.s0 drive c plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p1.s1 drive d plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s0 drive a plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p2.s1 drive b plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 524288b
sd name myvol.p2.s2 drive c plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s3 drive d plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1572864b
sd name bigraid.p0.s0 drive a plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 0b
sd name bigraid.p0.s1 drive b plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 4194304b
sd name bigraid.p0.s2 drive c plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 8388608b
sd name bigraid.p0.s3 drive d plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 12582912b
sd name bigraid.p0.s4 drive e plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 16777216b
The obvious differences here are the presence of explicit location information and naming, both of which are allowed but discouraged, and the information on the states. <filename>vinum</filename> does not store information about drives in the configuration information. It finds the drives by scanning the configured disk drives for partitions with a <filename>vinum</filename> label. This enables <filename>vinum</filename> to identify drives correctly even if they have been assigned different <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drive IDs.
Automatic Startup
<emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> always features an automatic startup once the kernel module is loaded, via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To load the <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> module at boot time, add <literal>geom_vinum_load="YES"</literal> to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.
When <filename>vinum</filename> is started with <command>gvinum start</command>, <filename>vinum</filename> reads the configuration database from one of the <filename>vinum</filename> drives. Under normal circumstances, each drive contains an identical copy of the configuration database, so it does not matter which drive is read. After a crash, however, <filename>vinum</filename> must determine which drive was updated most recently and read the configuration from this drive. It then updates the configuration, if necessary, from progressively older drives.
Using <filename>vinum</filename> for the Root File System
For a machine that has fully-mirrored file systems using <filename>vinum</filename>, it is desirable to also mirror the root file system. Setting up such a configuration is less trivial than mirroring an arbitrary file system because:
The root file system must be available very early during the boot process, so the <filename>vinum</filename> infrastructure must already be available at this time.
The volume containing the root file system also contains the system bootstrap and the kernel. These must be read using the host system's native utilities, such as the BIOS, which often cannot be taught about the details of <filename>vinum</filename>.
In the following sections, the term <quote>root volume</quote> is generally used to describe the <filename>vinum</filename> volume that contains the root file system.
Starting up <filename>vinum</filename> Early Enough for the Root File System
<filename>vinum</filename> must be available early in the system boot as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> must be able to load the vinum kernel module before starting the kernel. This can be accomplished by putting this line in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:
geom_vinum_load="YES"
Making a <filename>vinum</filename>-based Root Volume Accessible to the Bootstrap
Component Translation Difference to current string
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/articles_vinum
The following string has the same context and source.
Translated FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/books_arch-handbook

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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/title
Flags
read-only
Source string location
article.translate.xml:865
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/vinum.pot, string 132