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(itstool) path: listitem/para
Context English State

Drives: 4 (4 configured)
Volumes: 3 (4 configured)
Plexes: 4 (8 configured)
Subdisks: 7 (16 configured)

D a State: up Device /dev/da3h Avail: 1421/2573 MB (55%)
D b State: up Device /dev/da4h Avail: 1933/2573 MB (75%)
D c State: up Device /dev/da5h Avail: 2445/2573 MB (95%)
D d State: up Device /dev/da6h Avail: 2445/2573 MB (95%)

V myvol State: up Plexes: 1 Size: 512 MB
V mirror State: up Plexes: 2 Size: 512 MB
V striped State: up Plexes: 1 Size: 512 MB

P myvol.p0 C State: up Subdisks: 1 Size: 512 MB
P mirror.p0 C State: up Subdisks: 1 Size: 512 MB
P mirror.p1 C State: initializing Subdisks: 1 Size: 512 MB
P striped.p1 State: up Subdisks: 1 Size: 512 MB

S myvol.p0.s0 State: up PO: 0 B Size: 512 MB
S mirror.p0.s0 State: up PO: 0 B Size: 512 MB
S mirror.p1.s0 State: empty PO: 0 B Size: 512 MB
S striped.p0.s0 State: up PO: 0 B Size: 128 MB
S striped.p0.s1 State: up PO: 512 kB Size: 128 MB
S striped.p0.s2 State: up PO: 1024 kB Size: 128 MB
S striped.p0.s3 State: up PO: 1536 kB Size: 128 MB
A Striped <filename>vinum</filename> Volume
_ external ref='vinum-striped-vol' md5='__failed__'
This volume is represented in <xref linkend="vinum-striped-vol"/>. The darkness of the stripes indicates the position within the plex address space, where the lightest stripes come first and the darkest last.
Resilience and Performance
<anchor xml:id="vinum-resilience"/>With sufficient hardware, it is possible to build volumes which show both increased resilience and increased performance compared to standard <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> partitions. A typical configuration file might be:
volume raid10
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
The subdisks of the second plex are offset by two drives from those of the first plex. This helps to ensure that writes do not go to the same subdisks even if a transfer goes over two drives.
<xref linkend="vinum-raid10-vol"/> represents the structure of this volume.
A Mirrored, Striped <filename>vinum</filename> Volume
_ external ref='vinum-raid10-vol' md5='__failed__'
Object Naming
<filename>vinum</filename> assigns default names to plexes and subdisks, although they may be overridden. Overriding the default names is not recommended as it does not bring a significant advantage and it can cause confusion.
Names may contain any non-blank character, but it is recommended to restrict them to letters, digits and the underscore characters. The names of volumes, plexes, and subdisks may be up to 64 characters long, and the names of drives may be up to 32 characters long.
<filename>vinum</filename> objects are assigned device nodes in the hierarchy <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. The configuration shown above would cause <filename>vinum</filename> to create the following device nodes:
Device entries for each volume. These are the main devices used by <filename>vinum</filename>. The configuration above would include the devices <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> and <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>.
All volumes get direct entries under <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>.
The directories <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, and <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/sd</filename>, which contain device nodes for each plex and for each subdisk, respectively.
For example, consider the following configuration file:
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
After processing this file, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> creates the following structure in <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>:
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
Although it is recommended that plexes and subdisks should not be allocated specific names, <filename>vinum</filename> drives must be named. This makes it possible to move a drive to a different location and still recognize it automatically. Drive names may be up to 32 characters long.
Creating File Systems
Volumes appear to the system to be identical to disks, with one exception. Unlike <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drives, <filename>vinum</filename> does not partition volumes, which thus do not contain a partition table. This has required modification to some disk utilities, notably <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, so that it does not try to interpret the last letter of a <filename>vinum</filename> volume name as a partition identifier. For example, a disk drive may have a name like <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> or <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. These names represent the first partition (<filename>a</filename>) on the first (0) IDE disk (<filename>ad</filename>) and the eighth partition (<filename>h</filename>) on the third (2) SCSI disk (<filename>da</filename>) respectively. By contrast, a <filename>vinum</filename> volume might be called <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, which has no relationship with a partition name.
In order to create a file system on this volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput>
Configuring <filename>vinum</filename>
The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel does not contain <filename>vinum</filename>. It is possible to build a custom kernel which includes <filename>vinum</filename>, but this is not recommended. The standard way to start <filename>vinum</filename> is as a kernel module. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is not needed because when <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starts, it checks whether the module has been loaded, and if it is not, it loads it automatically.
Startup
<filename>vinum</filename> stores configuration information on the disk slices in essentially the same form as in the configuration files. When reading from the configuration database, <filename>vinum</filename> recognizes a number of keywords which are not allowed in the configuration files. For example, a disk configuration might contain the following text:

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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: listitem/para
Flags
read-only
Source string location
article.translate.xml:758
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/vinum.pot, string 118