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Translation

(itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
English
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
Resilience and Performance Resiliência e Desempenho
<anchor xml:id="vinum-resilience"/>With sufficient hardware, it is possible to build volumes which show both increased resilience and increased performance compared to standard <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> partitions. A typical configuration file might be: <anchor xml:id="vinum-resilience"/> Com hardware suficiente, é possível construir volumes que mostrem maior resiliência e melhor desempenho em comparação com as partições padrão <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>. Um arquivo de configuração típico pode ser:
volume raid10
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
volume raid10
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
plex org striped 512k
sd length 102480k drive c
sd length 102480k drive d
sd length 102480k drive e
sd length 102480k drive a
sd length 102480k drive b
The subdisks of the second plex are offset by two drives from those of the first plex. This helps to ensure that writes do not go to the same subdisks even if a transfer goes over two drives. Os subdiscos do segundo plex são compensados por duas unidades daquelas do primeiro plex. Isso ajuda a garantir que as gravações não vão para os mesmos subdiscos, mesmo que uma transferência passe por duas unidades.
<xref linkend="vinum-raid10-vol"/> represents the structure of this volume. <xref linkend="vinum-raid10-vol"/> representa a estrutura deste volume.
A Mirrored, Striped <filename>vinum</filename> Volume Um volume <filename>vinum</filename> espelhado e concatenado
_ external ref='vinum-raid10-vol' md5='__failed__' external ref='vinum-raid10-vol' md5='__ failed__'
Object Naming Nomeação de Objetos
<filename>vinum</filename> assigns default names to plexes and subdisks, although they may be overridden. Overriding the default names is not recommended as it does not bring a significant advantage and it can cause confusion. O <filename>vinum</filename> atribui nomes padrões a plexes e subdiscos, embora eles possam ser substituídos. Substituir os nomes padrões não é recomendado, pois não isso traz nenhuma vantagem significativa e pode causar confusão.
Names may contain any non-blank character, but it is recommended to restrict them to letters, digits and the underscore characters. The names of volumes, plexes, and subdisks may be up to 64 characters long, and the names of drives may be up to 32 characters long. Os nomes podem conter qualquer caractere não-branco, mas é recomendado restringi-los a letras, dígitos e caracteres de sublinhado. Os nomes de volumes, plexes e subdiscos podem ter até 64 caracteres e os nomes das unidades podem ter até 32 caracteres.
<filename>vinum</filename> objects are assigned device nodes in the hierarchy <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. The configuration shown above would cause <filename>vinum</filename> to create the following device nodes: Os objetos <filename>vinum</filename> são designados a device nodes na hierarquia <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. A configuração mostrada acima faria com que o <filename>vinum</filename> criasse os seguintes device nodes:
Device entries for each volume. These are the main devices used by <filename>vinum</filename>. The configuration above would include the devices <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> and <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>. Entradas de dispositivos para cada volume. Estes são os principais dispositivos usados pelo <filename>vinum</filename>. A configuração acima incluiria os dispositivos <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> e o <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>.
All volumes get direct entries under <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>. Todos os volumes recebem entradas diretas em <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>.
The directories <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, and <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/sd</filename>, which contain device nodes for each plex and for each subdisk, respectively. Os diretórios <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, e <filename class="directory"> /dev/gvinum/sd</filename> são aqueles que contém device nodes para cada plex e para cada subdisco, respectivamente.
For example, consider the following configuration file: Por exemplo, considere o seguinte arquivo de configuração:
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
After processing this file, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> creates the following structure in <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>: Depois de processar este arquivo, o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum> </citerefentry> cria a seguinte estrutura em <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>:
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
Although it is recommended that plexes and subdisks should not be allocated specific names, <filename>vinum</filename> drives must be named. This makes it possible to move a drive to a different location and still recognize it automatically. Drive names may be up to 32 characters long. Embora seja recomendado que os plexes e subdiscos não sejam atribuídos a nomes específicos, as unidades <filename>vinum</filename> devem ser nomeadas. Isso possibilita mover uma unidade para um local diferente e ainda reconhecê-la automaticamente. Os nomes dos drives podem ter até 32 caracteres.
Creating File Systems Criando sistemas de arquivos
Volumes appear to the system to be identical to disks, with one exception. Unlike <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drives, <filename>vinum</filename> does not partition volumes, which thus do not contain a partition table. This has required modification to some disk utilities, notably <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, so that it does not try to interpret the last letter of a <filename>vinum</filename> volume name as a partition identifier. For example, a disk drive may have a name like <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> or <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. These names represent the first partition (<filename>a</filename>) on the first (0) IDE disk (<filename>ad</filename>) and the eighth partition (<filename>h</filename>) on the third (2) SCSI disk (<filename>da</filename>) respectively. By contrast, a <filename>vinum</filename> volume might be called <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, which has no relationship with a partition name. Para o sistema os volumes são idênticos aos discos, com uma exceção. Ao contrário das unidades <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, o <filename>vinum</filename> não particiona os volumes, e, portanto, não contêm uma tabela de partições. Isso exigiu modificação em alguns dos utilitários de disco, notavelmente no <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, para que ele não tente interpretar a última letra de um nome do volume <filename>vinum</filename> como um identificador de partição. Por exemplo, uma unidade de disco pode ter um nome como <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> ou <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. Esses nomes representam a primeira partição (<filename>a</filename>) no primeiro (0) disco IDE (<filename>ad</filename>) e a oitava partição (<filename>h</filename>) no terceiro (2) disco SCSI (<filename>da</filename>) respectivamente. Por outro lado, um volume <filename>vinum</filename> pode ser chamado de <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, que não tem relação com o nome da partição.
In order to create a file system on this volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>: Para criar um sistema de arquivos neste volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput>
Configuring <filename>vinum</filename> Configurando o <filename>vinum</filename>
The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel does not contain <filename>vinum</filename>. It is possible to build a custom kernel which includes <filename>vinum</filename>, but this is not recommended. The standard way to start <filename>vinum</filename> is as a kernel module. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is not needed because when <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starts, it checks whether the module has been loaded, and if it is not, it loads it automatically. O kernel <filename>GENERIC</filename> não suporta o <filename>vinum</filename>. É possível compilar um kernel customizado que inclua o suporte estático ao <filename>vinum</filename>, mas isso não é recomendado. A maneira padrão de iniciar o <filename>vinum</filename> é como um módulo do kernel. O uso do <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> não é necessário porque quando o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> é iniciado, ele verifica se o módulo já foi carregado e, se ele não tiver sido, ele será carregado automaticamente.
Startup Começando
<filename>vinum</filename> stores configuration information on the disk slices in essentially the same form as in the configuration files. When reading from the configuration database, <filename>vinum</filename> recognizes a number of keywords which are not allowed in the configuration files. For example, a disk configuration might contain the following text: O <filename>vinum</filename> armazena as informações de configuração nos slices dos discos essencialmente da mesma forma que nos arquivos de configuração. Ao ler a partir do banco de dados de configuração, o <filename>vinum</filename> reconhece um número de palavras-chave que não são permitidas nos arquivos de configuração. Por exemplo, uma configuração de disco pode conter o seguinte texto:
volume myvol state up
volume bigraid state down
plex name myvol.p0 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p1 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p2 state init org striped 512b vol myvol
plex name bigraid.p0 state initializing org raid5 512b vol bigraid
sd name myvol.p0.s0 drive a plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p0.s1 drive b plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p1.s0 drive c plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p1.s1 drive d plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s0 drive a plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p2.s1 drive b plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 524288b
sd name myvol.p2.s2 drive c plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s3 drive d plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1572864b
sd name bigraid.p0.s0 drive a plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 0b
sd name bigraid.p0.s1 drive b plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 4194304b
sd name bigraid.p0.s2 drive c plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 8388608b
sd name bigraid.p0.s3 drive d plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 12582912b
sd name bigraid.p0.s4 drive e plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 16777216b
volume myvol state up
volume bigraid state down
plex name myvol.p0 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p1 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p2 state init org striped 512b vol myvol
plex name bigraid.p0 state initializing org raid5 512b vol bigraid
sd name myvol.p0.s0 drive a plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p0.s1 drive b plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p1.s0 drive c plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p1.s1 drive d plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s0 drive a plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p2.s1 drive b plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 524288b
sd name myvol.p2.s2 drive c plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s3 drive d plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1572864b
sd name bigraid.p0.s0 drive a plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 0b
sd name bigraid.p0.s1 drive b plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 4194304b
sd name bigraid.p0.s2 drive c plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 8388608b
sd name bigraid.p0.s3 drive d plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 12582912b
sd name bigraid.p0.s4 drive e plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 16777216b
The obvious differences here are the presence of explicit location information and naming, both of which are allowed but discouraged, and the information on the states. <filename>vinum</filename> does not store information about drives in the configuration information. It finds the drives by scanning the configured disk drives for partitions with a <filename>vinum</filename> label. This enables <filename>vinum</filename> to identify drives correctly even if they have been assigned different <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drive IDs. As diferenças óbvias aqui são a presença de informações explícitas de localização e nomeação, as quais são ambas permitidas mas desencorajadas, e as informações sobre os estados. O <filename>vinum</filename> não armazena informações sobre unidades nas informações de configuração. Ele encontra as unidades varrendo as unidades de disco configuradas em busca de partições com um rótulo <filename>vinum</filename>. Isso permite que o <filename>vinum</filename> identifique as unidades corretamente, mesmo que elas tenham recebido diferentes IDs de unidade <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>.
Automatic Startup Inicialização automática
<emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> always features an automatic startup once the kernel module is loaded, via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To load the <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> module at boot time, add <literal>geom_vinum_load="YES"</literal> to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. O <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> apresenta sempre uma inicialização automática assim que o módulo do kernel é carregado, através do <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Para carregar o módulo <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> no momento da inicialização, adicione <literal>geom_vinum_load="YES"</literal> ao arquivo <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
Flags
no-wrap
Source string location
article.translate.xml:785
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/pt_BR/vinum.po, string 122