The translation is temporarily closed for contributions due to maintenance, please come back later.

Translation

(itstool) path: sect2/title
English
Startup
Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
<filename>vinum</filename> objects are assigned device nodes in the hierarchy <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. The configuration shown above would cause <filename>vinum</filename> to create the following device nodes: Os objetos <filename>vinum</filename> são designados a device nodes na hierarquia <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>. A configuração mostrada acima faria com que o <filename>vinum</filename> criasse os seguintes device nodes:
Device entries for each volume. These are the main devices used by <filename>vinum</filename>. The configuration above would include the devices <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> and <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>. Entradas de dispositivos para cada volume. Estes são os principais dispositivos usados pelo <filename>vinum</filename>. A configuração acima incluiria os dispositivos <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/myvol</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/mirror</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/striped</filename>, <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid5</filename> e o <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/raid10</filename>.
All volumes get direct entries under <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>. Todos os volumes recebem entradas diretas em <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/</filename>.
The directories <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, and <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/sd</filename>, which contain device nodes for each plex and for each subdisk, respectively. Os diretórios <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum/plex</filename>, e <filename class="directory"> /dev/gvinum/sd</filename> são aqueles que contém device nodes para cada plex e para cada subdisco, respectivamente.
For example, consider the following configuration file: Por exemplo, considere o seguinte arquivo de configuração:
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
drive drive1 device /dev/sd1h
drive drive2 device /dev/sd2h
drive drive3 device /dev/sd3h
drive drive4 device /dev/sd4h
volume s64 setupstate
plex org striped 64k
sd length 100m drive drive1
sd length 100m drive drive2
sd length 100m drive drive3
sd length 100m drive drive4
After processing this file, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> creates the following structure in <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>: Depois de processar este arquivo, o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum> </citerefentry> cria a seguinte estrutura em <filename class="directory">/dev/gvinum</filename>:
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13
16:46 plex
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 2 Apr 13 16:46 s64
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Apr 13 16:46 sd

/dev/vinum/plex:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 25, 0x10000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0

/dev/vinum/sd:
total 0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20000002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s0
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20100002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s1
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20200002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s2
crwxr-xr-- 1 root wheel 91, 0x20300002 Apr 13 16:46 s64.p0.s3
Although it is recommended that plexes and subdisks should not be allocated specific names, <filename>vinum</filename> drives must be named. This makes it possible to move a drive to a different location and still recognize it automatically. Drive names may be up to 32 characters long. Embora seja recomendado que os plexes e subdiscos não sejam atribuídos a nomes específicos, as unidades <filename>vinum</filename> devem ser nomeadas. Isso possibilita mover uma unidade para um local diferente e ainda reconhecê-la automaticamente. Os nomes dos drives podem ter até 32 caracteres.
Creating File Systems Criando sistemas de arquivos
Volumes appear to the system to be identical to disks, with one exception. Unlike <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drives, <filename>vinum</filename> does not partition volumes, which thus do not contain a partition table. This has required modification to some disk utilities, notably <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, so that it does not try to interpret the last letter of a <filename>vinum</filename> volume name as a partition identifier. For example, a disk drive may have a name like <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> or <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. These names represent the first partition (<filename>a</filename>) on the first (0) IDE disk (<filename>ad</filename>) and the eighth partition (<filename>h</filename>) on the third (2) SCSI disk (<filename>da</filename>) respectively. By contrast, a <filename>vinum</filename> volume might be called <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, which has no relationship with a partition name. Para o sistema os volumes são idênticos aos discos, com uma exceção. Ao contrário das unidades <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>, o <filename>vinum</filename> não particiona os volumes, e, portanto, não contêm uma tabela de partições. Isso exigiu modificação em alguns dos utilitários de disco, notavelmente no <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, para que ele não tente interpretar a última letra de um nome do volume <filename>vinum</filename> como um identificador de partição. Por exemplo, uma unidade de disco pode ter um nome como <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ad0a</filename> ou <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da2h</filename>. Esses nomes representam a primeira partição (<filename>a</filename>) no primeiro (0) disco IDE (<filename>ad</filename>) e a oitava partição (<filename>h</filename>) no terceiro (2) disco SCSI (<filename>da</filename>) respectivamente. Por outro lado, um volume <filename>vinum</filename> pode ser chamado de <filename class="devicefile">/dev/gvinum/concat</filename>, que não tem relação com o nome da partição.
In order to create a file system on this volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>: Para criar um sistema de arquivos neste volume, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/gvinum/concat</userinput>
Configuring <filename>vinum</filename> Configurando o <filename>vinum</filename>
The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel does not contain <filename>vinum</filename>. It is possible to build a custom kernel which includes <filename>vinum</filename>, but this is not recommended. The standard way to start <filename>vinum</filename> is as a kernel module. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is not needed because when <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starts, it checks whether the module has been loaded, and if it is not, it loads it automatically. O kernel <filename>GENERIC</filename> não suporta o <filename>vinum</filename>. É possível compilar um kernel customizado que inclua o suporte estático ao <filename>vinum</filename>, mas isso não é recomendado. A maneira padrão de iniciar o <filename>vinum</filename> é como um módulo do kernel. O uso do <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> não é necessário porque quando o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gvinum</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> é iniciado, ele verifica se o módulo já foi carregado e, se ele não tiver sido, ele será carregado automaticamente.
Startup Começando
<filename>vinum</filename> stores configuration information on the disk slices in essentially the same form as in the configuration files. When reading from the configuration database, <filename>vinum</filename> recognizes a number of keywords which are not allowed in the configuration files. For example, a disk configuration might contain the following text: O <filename>vinum</filename> armazena as informações de configuração nos slices dos discos essencialmente da mesma forma que nos arquivos de configuração. Ao ler a partir do banco de dados de configuração, o <filename>vinum</filename> reconhece um número de palavras-chave que não são permitidas nos arquivos de configuração. Por exemplo, uma configuração de disco pode conter o seguinte texto:
volume myvol state up
volume bigraid state down
plex name myvol.p0 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p1 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p2 state init org striped 512b vol myvol
plex name bigraid.p0 state initializing org raid5 512b vol bigraid
sd name myvol.p0.s0 drive a plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p0.s1 drive b plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p1.s0 drive c plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p1.s1 drive d plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s0 drive a plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p2.s1 drive b plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 524288b
sd name myvol.p2.s2 drive c plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s3 drive d plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1572864b
sd name bigraid.p0.s0 drive a plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 0b
sd name bigraid.p0.s1 drive b plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 4194304b
sd name bigraid.p0.s2 drive c plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 8388608b
sd name bigraid.p0.s3 drive d plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 12582912b
sd name bigraid.p0.s4 drive e plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 16777216b
volume myvol state up
volume bigraid state down
plex name myvol.p0 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p1 state up org concat vol myvol
plex name myvol.p2 state init org striped 512b vol myvol
plex name bigraid.p0 state initializing org raid5 512b vol bigraid
sd name myvol.p0.s0 drive a plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p0.s1 drive b plex myvol.p0 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p1.s0 drive c plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p1.s1 drive d plex myvol.p1 state up len 1048576b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s0 drive a plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 0b
sd name myvol.p2.s1 drive b plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 524288b
sd name myvol.p2.s2 drive c plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1048576b
sd name myvol.p2.s3 drive d plex myvol.p2 state init len 524288b driveoffset 1048841b plexoffset 1572864b
sd name bigraid.p0.s0 drive a plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 0b
sd name bigraid.p0.s1 drive b plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 4194304b
sd name bigraid.p0.s2 drive c plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 8388608b
sd name bigraid.p0.s3 drive d plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 12582912b
sd name bigraid.p0.s4 drive e plex bigraid.p0 state initializing len 4194304b driveoff set 1573129b plexoffset 16777216b
The obvious differences here are the presence of explicit location information and naming, both of which are allowed but discouraged, and the information on the states. <filename>vinum</filename> does not store information about drives in the configuration information. It finds the drives by scanning the configured disk drives for partitions with a <filename>vinum</filename> label. This enables <filename>vinum</filename> to identify drives correctly even if they have been assigned different <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> drive IDs. As diferenças óbvias aqui são a presença de informações explícitas de localização e nomeação, as quais são ambas permitidas mas desencorajadas, e as informações sobre os estados. O <filename>vinum</filename> não armazena informações sobre unidades nas informações de configuração. Ele encontra as unidades varrendo as unidades de disco configuradas em busca de partições com um rótulo <filename>vinum</filename>. Isso permite que o <filename>vinum</filename> identifique as unidades corretamente, mesmo que elas tenham recebido diferentes IDs de unidade <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>.
Automatic Startup Inicialização automática
<emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> always features an automatic startup once the kernel module is loaded, via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To load the <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> module at boot time, add <literal>geom_vinum_load="YES"</literal> to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. O <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> apresenta sempre uma inicialização automática assim que o módulo do kernel é carregado, através do <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Para carregar o módulo <emphasis>Gvinum</emphasis> no momento da inicialização, adicione <literal>geom_vinum_load="YES"</literal> ao arquivo <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.
When <filename>vinum</filename> is started with <command>gvinum start</command>, <filename>vinum</filename> reads the configuration database from one of the <filename>vinum</filename> drives. Under normal circumstances, each drive contains an identical copy of the configuration database, so it does not matter which drive is read. After a crash, however, <filename>vinum</filename> must determine which drive was updated most recently and read the configuration from this drive. It then updates the configuration, if necessary, from progressively older drives. Quando o <filename>vinum</filename> é iniciado com <command>gvinum start</command>, o <filename>vinum</filename> lê o banco de dados de configuração de uma das unidades <filename>vinum</filename>. Em circunstâncias normais, cada unidade contém uma cópia idêntica do banco de dados de configuração, portanto, não importa qual unidade é lida. Após uma falha, no entanto, o <filename>vinum</filename> deve determinar qual unidade foi atualizada mais recentemente e ler a configuração desta unidade. Em seguida, atualiza a configuração, se necessário, de unidades progressivamente a partir das mais antigas.
Using <filename>vinum</filename> for the Root File System Usando o <filename>vinum</filename> para o sistema de arquivos raiz
For a machine that has fully-mirrored file systems using <filename>vinum</filename>, it is desirable to also mirror the root file system. Setting up such a configuration is less trivial than mirroring an arbitrary file system because: Para uma máquina que tenha sistemas de arquivos totalmente espelhados usando <filename>vinum</filename>, é desejável também espelhar o sistema de arquivos raiz. Efetuar esta configuração é menos trivial do que espelhar um sistema de arquivos arbitrário porque:
The root file system must be available very early during the boot process, so the <filename>vinum</filename> infrastructure must already be available at this time. O sistema de arquivos raiz deve estar disponível muito cedo durante o processo de inicialização, portanto a infraestrutura <filename>vinum</filename> já deve estar disponível no momento.
The volume containing the root file system also contains the system bootstrap and the kernel. These must be read using the host system's native utilities, such as the BIOS, which often cannot be taught about the details of <filename>vinum</filename>. O volume que contém o sistema de arquivos raiz também contém a auto-inicialização do sistema e o kernel. Eles devem ser lidos usando os utilitários nativos do sistema, como o BIOS, que muitas vezes não pode ser instruído sobre os detalhes do <filename>vinum</filename>.
In the following sections, the term <quote>root volume</quote> is generally used to describe the <filename>vinum</filename> volume that contains the root file system. Nas seções a seguir, o termo <quote>volume raiz</quote> é geralmente usado para descrever o volume <filename>vinum</filename> que contém o sistema de arquivos raiz (/).
Starting up <filename>vinum</filename> Early Enough for the Root File System Iniciando o <filename>vinum</filename> cedo o suficiente para o sistema de arquivos raiz
<filename>vinum</filename> must be available early in the system boot as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> must be able to load the vinum kernel module before starting the kernel. This can be accomplished by putting this line in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>: O <filename>vinum</filename> deve estar disponível no início da inicialização do sistema pois o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle> <manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> deve ser capaz de carregar o módulo do kernel vinum antes de iniciar o kernel. Isto pode ser feito colocando esta linha no <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:
geom_vinum_load="YES" geom_vinum_load="YES"
Making a <filename>vinum</filename>-based Root Volume Accessible to the Bootstrap Tornando um volume raiz baseado em <filename>vinum</filename> acessível ao Bootstrap
Component Translation Difference to current string
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/articles_vinum
The following string has the same context and source.
Needs editing FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/books_arch-handbook

Loading…

New source string a year ago
Browse all component changes

Glossary

English Portuguese (Brazil)
No related strings found in the glossary.

Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/title
Source string location
article.translate.xml:865
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
articles/pt_BR/vinum.po, string 132