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<primary>POST</primary>
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Welcome to the FreeBSD Architecture Handbook. This manual is a <emphasis>work in progress</emphasis> and is the work of many individuals. Many sections do not yet exist and some of those that do exist need to be updated. If you are interested in helping with this project, send email to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>. Welcome to the FreeBSD Architecture Handbook. This manual is a <emphasis>work in progress</emphasis> and is the work of many individuals. Many sections do not yet exist and some of those that do exist need to be updated. If you are interested in helping with this project, send email to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.
The latest version of this document is always available from the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD World Wide Web server</link>. It may also be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors-ftp.html">mirror sites</link>. The latest version of this document is always available from the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD World Wide Web server</link>. It may also be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors-ftp.html">mirror sites</link>.
Kernel Kernel
Bootstrapping and Kernel Initialization Bootstrapping e Inicialização do Kernel
<personname> <firstname>Sergey</firstname> <surname>Lyubka</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib> <personname><firstname>Sergey</firstname><surname> Lyubka</surname></personname><contrib> Contribuíram por </contrib>
<personname> <firstname>Sergio Andrés</firstname> <surname> Gómez del Real</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated and enhanced by </contrib> <personname> <firstname>Sergio Andrés</firstname> <surname> Gómez del Real</surname> </personname> <contrib>Atualizado e melhorado por </contrib>
Synopsis Sinopse
<primary>BIOS</primary> <primary>BIOS</primary>
<primary>firmware</primary> <primary>firmware</primary>
<primary>POST</primary> <primary>POST</primary>
<primary>IA-32</primary> <primary>IA-32</primary>
<primary>booting</primary> <primary>inicialização</primary>
<primary>system initialization</primary> <primary>inicialização do sistema</primary>
This chapter is an overview of the boot and system initialization processes, starting from the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> (firmware) <acronym>POST</acronym>, to the first user process creation. Since the initial steps of system startup are very architecture dependent, the IA-32 architecture is used as an example. Este capítulo é uma visão geral dos processos de inicialização e inicialização do sistema, desde o <acronym>POST</acronym> da <acronym>BIOS</acronym> (firmware) até a primeira criação do processo do usuário. Como as etapas iniciais da inicialização do sistema são muito dependentes da arquitetura, a arquitetura IA-32 é usada como um exemplo.
The FreeBSD boot process can be surprisingly complex. After control is passed from the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, a considerable amount of low-level configuration must be done before the kernel can be loaded and executed. This setup must be done in a simple and flexible manner, allowing the user a great deal of customization possibilities. O processo de inicialização do FreeBSD pode ser surpreendentemente complexo. Após o controle ser passado da <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, uma quantidade considerável de configuração de baixo nével deve ser feita antes que o kernel possa ser carregado e executado. Essa configuração deve ser feita de maneira simples e flexível, permitindo ao usuário uma grande quantidade de possibilidades de personalização.
Overview Visão geral
The boot process is an extremely machine-dependent activity. Not only must code be written for every computer architecture, but there may also be multiple types of booting on the same architecture. For example, a directory listing of <filename>/usr/src/sys/boot</filename> reveals a great amount of architecture-dependent code. There is a directory for each of the various supported architectures. In the x86-specific <filename>i386</filename> directory, there are subdirectories for different boot standards like <filename>mbr</filename> (Master Boot Record), <filename>gpt</filename> (<acronym>GUID</acronym> Partition Table), and <filename>efi</filename> (Extensible Firmware Interface). Each boot standard has its own conventions and data structures. The example that follows shows booting an x86 computer from an <acronym>MBR</acronym> hard drive with the FreeBSD <filename>boot0</filename> multi-boot loader stored in the very first sector. That boot code starts the FreeBSD three-stage boot process. O processo de inicialização é uma atividade extremamente dependente da máquina. Não sé deve ser escrito código para cada arquitetura de computador, mas também pode haver vários tipos de inicialização na mesma arquitetura. Por exemplo, uma lista de diretórios de <filename>/usr/src/sys/boot</filename> revela uma grande quantidade de código dependente de arquitetura. Existe um diretório para cada uma das várias arquiteturas suportadas. No x86-specific <filename>i386</filename> diretório, existem subdiretórios para diferentes padrões de inicialização, como <filename>mbr</filename> (Master Boot Record), <filename>gpt</filename> (Tabela de Partição <acronym>GUID</acronym> ) e <filename>efi</filename> (Interface de Firmware Extensível). Cada padrão de inicialização possui suas próprias convenções e estruturas de dados. O exemplo a seguir mostra a inicialização de um computador x86 de um disco rígido <acronym>MBR</acronym> com o FreeBSD <filename>boot0</filename> carregador multi-boot armazenado no primeiro setor. Esse código inicia o processo de inicialização de três estágios do FreeBSD.
The key to understanding this process is that it is a series of stages of increasing complexity. These stages are <filename>boot1</filename>, <filename>boot2</filename>, and <filename>loader</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more detail). The boot system executes each stage in sequence. The last stage, <filename>loader</filename>, is responsible for loading the FreeBSD kernel. Each stage is examined in the following sections. A chave para entender esse processo é que ele é uma série de estágios de crescente complexidade. Esses estágios são <filename>boot1</filename> , <filename>boot2</filename> e <filename>carregador</filename> (Vejo <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> para mais detalhes). O sistema de inicialização executa cada estágio em sequência. O último estágio <filename>carregador</filename> , é responsável por carregar o kernel do FreeBSD. Cada estágio é examinado nas seções seguintes.
Here is an example of the output generated by the different boot stages. Actual output may differ from machine to machine: Aqui está um exemplo da saída gerada pelos diferentes estágios de inicialização. A saída real pode diferir de máquina para máquina:
FreeBSD Component Componente do FreeBSD
Output (may vary) Saída (pode variar)
<literal>boot0</literal> <literal>boot0</literal>
F1 FreeBSD
F2 BSD
F5 Disk 2
F1 FreeBSD
F2 BSD
F5 Disk 2
This prompt will appear if the user presses a key just after selecting an OS to boot at the <literal>boot0</literal> stage. Este aviso aparecerá se o usuário pressionar uma tecla logo após selecionar um SO para inicializar no <literal>boot0</literal> etapa.
<literal>boot2</literal> <_:footnote-1/> <literal>boot2</literal> <_:footnote-1/>

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(itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
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book.translate.xml:294
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a year ago
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a year ago
Translation file
books/pt_BR/arch-handbook.po, string 25