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(itstool) path: authorgroup/author
English
<personname> <firstname>Sergio Andrés</firstname> <surname> Gómez del Real</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated and enhanced by </contrib>
Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation. FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD 基金会的注册商标。
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. UNIX 是 Open Group 在美国和其它国家的注册商标。
Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Apple、Airport、FireWire、Imac、iMac、iPad、Mac、Macintosh、mac OS、QuickTime 和 TrueType 是苹果公司在美国和其他国家注册的商标。
Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. 微软、智能鼠标、MS-DOS、Outlook、Windows、Windows Media和 Windows NT 是微软公司在美国和其他国家的注册商标或商标。
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol. 制造商和销售商为区分其产品而使用的许多名称都被认作商标。如果这些标识出现在本文档中, 并且 FreeBSD 项目知道商标声明, 则在这些名称之后增加 <quote>™</quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 标记。
Copyright 版权
Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 允许在源文件(XML DocBook)和以“已编译”(XML,HTML,PDF,PostScript,RTF等)格式重新分发和使用(无论是否经过修改),但必须满足以下条件:
Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified. 源代码形式 (XML DocBook) 的重新分发必须保留上述版权声明、且此条件列表和以下免责声明作为此文件的第一行, 而不进行改动。
Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 以编译形式重新分发(转换为其他DTD,转换为PDF,PostScript,RTF和其他格式)必须在随分发提供的文档和/或其他材料中复制上述版权声明,此条件列表和以下免责声明。
THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. 本文档由 FreeBSD 文档项目“按原样”提供,并且不承担任何明示或暗示的担保,包括但不限于对适销性和特定用途的适用性的暗示担保。在任何情况下,FreeBSD 文档项目均不对任何直接,间接,偶然,特殊,惩戒或后果性损害(包括但不限于采购替代商品或服务;使用,数据或利润损失;或商业中断)无论如何引起并承担任何责任理论,无论是合同,严格责任,还是侵权(包括疏忽或其他情况),以任何方式使用本文档,即使被告知此类损害的可能性。
Welcome to the FreeBSD Architecture Handbook. This manual is a <emphasis>work in progress</emphasis> and is the work of many individuals. Many sections do not yet exist and some of those that do exist need to be updated. If you are interested in helping with this project, send email to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>. 欢迎您阅读《FreeBSD系统结构手册》。 这本手册还在不断由许多人<emphasis>继续书写</emphasis>。 许多章节还是空白,有的章节亟待更新。 如果您对这个项目感兴趣并愿意有所贡献,请发信给<link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文档计划邮件列表</link>.
The latest version of this document is always available from the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD World Wide Web server</link>. It may also be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors-ftp.html">mirror sites</link>. 本文档最新版本可从 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD World Wide Web server</link>获得。您还可以从<link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP server</link> 或任意一个 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors-ftp.html">镜像站点</link>获取本文档的压缩文件其他格式文件。
Kernel 内核
Bootstrapping and Kernel Initialization 引导过程与内核初始化
<personname> <firstname>Sergey</firstname> <surname>Lyubka</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib> <personname> <firstname>Sergey</firstname> <surname>Lyubka</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
<personname> <firstname>Sergio Andrés</firstname> <surname> Gómez del Real</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated and enhanced by </contrib> <personname> <firstname>Sergio Andrés</firstname> <surname> Gómez del Real</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated and enhanced by </contrib>
Synopsis 简介
<primary>BIOS</primary> <primary>BIOS</primary>
<primary>firmware</primary> <primary>固件</primary>
<primary>POST</primary> <primary>POST</primary>
<primary>IA-32</primary> <primary>IA-32</primary>
<primary>booting</primary> <primary> 启动 </primary>
<primary>system initialization</primary> <primary>系统初始化</primary>
This chapter is an overview of the boot and system initialization processes, starting from the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> (firmware) <acronym>POST</acronym>, to the first user process creation. Since the initial steps of system startup are very architecture dependent, the IA-32 architecture is used as an example. 这一章是对引导过程和系统初始化过程的总览。这些过程始于<acronym>BIOS</acronym>(固件)<acronym>POST</acronym>,直到第一个用户进程建立。由于系统启动的最初步骤是与硬件结构相关的、是紧配合的, 这里用IA-32(Intel Architecture 32bit)结构作为例子。
The FreeBSD boot process can be surprisingly complex. After control is passed from the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, a considerable amount of low-level configuration must be done before the kernel can be loaded and executed. This setup must be done in a simple and flexible manner, allowing the user a great deal of customization possibilities. FreeBSD 启动过程非常复杂。从<acronym>BIOS</acronym>传递控制后,必须先执行大量低级配置,然后才能加载和执行内核。此设置必须以简单和灵活的方式完成,允许用户自定义。
Overview 总览
The boot process is an extremely machine-dependent activity. Not only must code be written for every computer architecture, but there may also be multiple types of booting on the same architecture. For example, a directory listing of <filename>/usr/src/sys/boot</filename> reveals a great amount of architecture-dependent code. There is a directory for each of the various supported architectures. In the x86-specific <filename>i386</filename> directory, there are subdirectories for different boot standards like <filename>mbr</filename> (Master Boot Record), <filename>gpt</filename> (<acronym>GUID</acronym> Partition Table), and <filename>efi</filename> (Extensible Firmware Interface). Each boot standard has its own conventions and data structures. The example that follows shows booting an x86 computer from an <acronym>MBR</acronym> hard drive with the FreeBSD <filename>boot0</filename> multi-boot loader stored in the very first sector. That boot code starts the FreeBSD three-stage boot process. 启动过程与计算机架构息息相关。不仅必须为每个计算机体系结构编写代码,而且在同一体系结构上也可能有多个不同类型的引导。例如,<filename>/usr/src/sys/boot</filename>的目录列表显示了大量依赖于体系结构的代码。每个受支持的体系结构都有一个目录。在特定于 x86 的 <filename>i386</filename> 目录中,有不同引导标准的子目录,如<filename>mbr</filename>(主引导记录)、<filename>gpt</filename>(<acronym>GUID</acronym>分区表)和<filename>efi</filename>(可扩展固件接口)。每个引导标准都有自己的约定和数据结构。以下示例显示,使用存储在第一扇区的 FreeBSD <filename>boot0</filename> 多引导加载程序,从<acronym>MBR</acronym> 硬盘驱动器启动 x86 计算机。该引导代码启动 FreeBSD 三阶段引导过程。
The key to understanding this process is that it is a series of stages of increasing complexity. These stages are <filename>boot1</filename>, <filename>boot2</filename>, and <filename>loader</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more detail). The boot system executes each stage in sequence. The last stage, <filename>loader</filename>, is responsible for loading the FreeBSD kernel. Each stage is examined in the following sections. 理解此过程的关键在于这些阶段的复杂度逐级增加。这些阶段是<filename>boot1</filename>,<filename>boot2</filename> 和 <filename>loader</filename>(更多详情请参阅 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。这些阶段在系统启动时按顺序执行。最后一步,<filename>loader</filename>,负责加载 FreeBSD 内核。以下章节将介绍各个阶段。
Here is an example of the output generated by the different boot stages. Actual output may differ from machine to machine: 下面是由不同引导阶段生成的输出的示例。实际输出可能因机器而异:
FreeBSD Component FreeBSD 组件
Output (may vary) 输出(可能有所不同)

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: authorgroup/author
Source string location
book.translate.xml:277
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/zh_CN/arch-handbook.po, string 21