Translation

(itstool) path: sect1/para
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
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Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
The <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
The <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
When the computer powers on, the processor's registers are set to some predefined values. One of the registers is the <emphasis>instruction pointer</emphasis> register, and its value after a power on is well defined: it is a 32-bit value of <literal>0xfffffff0</literal>. The instruction pointer register (also known as the Program Counter) points to code to be executed by the processor. Another important register is the <literal>cr0</literal> 32-bit control register, and its value just after a reboot is <literal>0</literal>. One of <literal>cr0</literal>'s bits, the PE (Protection Enabled) bit, indicates whether the processor is running in 32-bit protected mode or 16-bit real mode. Since this bit is cleared at boot time, the processor boots in 16-bit real mode. Real mode means, among other things, that linear and physical addresses are identical. The reason for the processor not to start immediately in 32-bit protected mode is backwards compatibility. In particular, the boot process relies on the services provided by the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, and the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> itself works in legacy, 16-bit code.
当PC加电后,处理器的寄存器被设为某些特定值。在这些寄存器中, <emphasis>指令指针</emphasis>寄存器被设为32位值0xfffffff0。 指令指针寄存器指向处理器将要执行的指令代码。<literal>cr1</literal>, 一个32位控制寄存器,在刚启动时值被设为0。cr1的PE(Protected Enabled, 保护模式使能)位用来指示处理器是处于保护模式还是实地址模式。 由于启动时该位被清位,处理器在实地址模式中引导。在实地址模式中, 线性地址与物理地址是等同的。
The value of <literal>0xfffffff0</literal> is slightly less than 4 GB, so unless the machine has 4 GB of physical memory, it cannot point to a valid memory address. The computer's hardware translates this address so that it points to a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> memory block.
值 <literal>0xfffffff0</literal> 略小于4G,因此计算机没有 4G 字节物理内存,这就不会是一个有效的内存地址。计算机硬件将这个地址转指向 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 存储块。
The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> (Basic Input Output System) is a chip on the motherboard that has a relatively small amount of read-only memory (<acronym>ROM</acronym>). This memory contains various low-level routines that are specific to the hardware supplied with the motherboard. The processor will first jump to the address 0xfffffff0, which really resides in the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>'s memory. Usually this address contains a jump instruction to the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>'s POST routines.
BIOS表示<emphasis>Basic Input Output System</emphasis> (基本输入输出系统)。在主板上,它被固化在一个相对容量较小的 只读存储器(Read-Only Memory, ROM)。BIOS包含各种各样为主板硬件 定制的底层例程。就这样,处理器首先指向常驻BIOS存储器的地址 0xfffffff0。通常这个位置包含一条跳转指令,指向BIOS的POST例程。
The <acronym>POST</acronym> (Power On Self Test) is a set of routines including the memory check, system bus check, and other low-level initialization so the <acronym>CPU</acronym> can set up the computer properly. The important step of this stage is determining the boot device. Modern <acronym>BIOS</acronym> implementations permit the selection of a boot device, allowing booting from a floppy, <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym>, hard disk, or other devices.
POST表示<emphasis>Power On Self Test</emphasis>(加电自检)。 这套程序包括内存检查,系统总线检查和其它底层工具, 从而使得CPU能够初始化整台计算机。这一阶段中有一个重要步骤, 就是确定引导设备。现在所有的BIOS都允许手工选择引导设备。 你可以从软盘、光盘驱动器、硬盘等设备引导。
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
<acronym>POST</acronym>的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构,硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用。
This sector is our boot-sequence starting point. As we will see, this sector contains a copy of our <filename>boot0</filename> program. A jump is made by the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> to address <literal>0x7c00</literal> so it starts executing.
 
The Master Boot Record (<literal>boot0</literal>)
主引导记录 (<literal>boot0</literal>)
<primary>MBR</primary>
<primary>MBR</primary>
After control is received from the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> at memory address <literal>0x7c00</literal>, <filename>boot0</filename> starts executing. It is the first piece of code under FreeBSD control. The task of <filename>boot0</filename> is quite simple: scan the partition table and let the user choose which partition to boot from. The Partition Table is a special, standard data structure embedded in the <acronym>MBR</acronym> (hence embedded in <filename>boot0</filename>) describing the four standard PC <quote>partitions</quote> <_:footnote-1/>. <filename>boot0</filename> resides in the filesystem as <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>. It is a small 512-byte file, and it is exactly what FreeBSD's installation procedure wrote to the hard disk's <acronym>MBR</acronym> if you chose the <quote>bootmanager</quote> option at installation time. Indeed, <filename>boot0</filename> <emphasis>is</emphasis> the <acronym>MBR</acronym>.
 
As mentioned previously, the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction causes the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler to load an <acronym>MBR</acronym> (<filename>boot0</filename>) into memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The source file for <filename>boot0</filename> can be found in <filename>sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S</filename> - which is an awesome piece of code written by Robert Nordier.
如前所述, <literal>INT 0x19</literal> 指令装载 MBR, 也就是 <filename>boot0</filename> 的内容至内存地址 0x7c00。 再看文件 <filename>sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S</filename>, 可以猜想这里面发生了什么 - 这是引导管理器, 一段由 Robert Nordier书写的令人起敬的程序片段。

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The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
<acronym>POST</acronym>的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构,硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用<_:footnote-1/>
3 months ago
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
<acronym>POST</acronym>的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构,硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用<_:footnote-1/>。
6 months ago

The <_:footnote-1/> is breaking the build. And is missing one INT 0x19 tag.

6 months ago
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
POST<acronym>POST</acronym>的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构,硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用<_:footnote-1/>。
6 months ago
New contributor 6 months ago

This translate is breaking the build

6 months ago
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
POST的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构,硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用<_:footnote-1/>。
6 months ago
The very last thing in the <acronym>POST</acronym> is the <literal>INT 0x19</literal> instruction. The <literal>INT 0x19</literal> handler reads 512 bytes from the first sector of boot device into the memory at address <literal>0x7c00</literal>. The term <emphasis>first sector</emphasis> originates from hard drive architecture, where the magnetic plate is divided into a number of cylindrical tracks. Tracks are numbered, and every track is divided into a number (usually 64) of sectors. Track numbers start at 0, but sector numbers start from 1. Track 0 is the outermost on the magnetic plate, and sector 1, the first sector, has a special purpose. It is also called the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, or Master Boot Record. The remaining sectors on the first track are never used.
POST的最后一步是执行<literal>INT 0x19</literal>指令。 这个指令从引导设备第一个扇区读取512字节,装入地址0x7c00<literal>0x7c00</literal>。 <emphasis>第一个扇区</emphasis>的说法最早起源于硬盘的结构, 硬盘面被分为若干圆柱形轨道。给轨道编号,同时又将轨道分为 一定数目(通常是64)的扇形。0号轨道是硬盘的最外圈,1号扇区, 第一个扇区(轨道、柱面都从0开始编号,而扇区从1开始编号) 有着特殊的作用,它又被称为主引导记录(Master Boot Record, MBR<acronym>MBR</acronym>)。 第一轨剩余的扇区常常不使用<_:footnote-1/>。
7 months ago
New contributor 7 months ago
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dbaio

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This translate is breaking the build

6 months ago
dbaio

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The <_:footnote-1/> is breaking the build. And is missing one INT 0x19 tag.

6 months ago

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(itstool) path: sect1/para
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9 months ago
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books/zh_CN/arch-handbook.po, string 51