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The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System
<personname><firstname>Marshall</firstname><othername>Kirk</othername><surname>McKusick</surname></personname>
<personname><firstname>Keith</firstname><surname>Bostic</surname></personname>
<personname><firstname>Michael</firstname><othername>J.</othername><surname>Karels</surname></personname>
<personname><firstname>John</firstname><othername>S.</othername><surname>Quarterman</surname></personname>
<year>1996</year> <holder>Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc</holder>
The second chapter of the book, <citetitle>The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System</citetitle> is excerpted here with the permission of the publisher. No part of it may be further reproduced or distributed without the publisher's express written <link xlink:href="mailto:peter.gordon@awl.com">permission</link>. The rest of <link xlink:href="http://cseng.aw.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0201549794,00.html">the book</link> explores the concepts introduced in this chapter in incredible detail and is an excellent reference for anyone with an interest in BSD UNIX. More information about this book is available from the publisher, with whom you can also sign up to receive news of <link xlink:href="mailto:curt.johnson@awl.com">related titles</link>. Information about <link xlink:href="http://www.mckusick.com/courses/">BSD courses</link> is available from Kirk McKusick.
$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/design-44bsd/book.xml 44677 2014-04-28 19:36:49Z wblock $
Design Overview of 4.4BSD
4.4BSD Facilities and the Kernel
The 4.4BSD kernel provides four basic facilities: processes, a filesystem, communications, and system startup. This section outlines where each of these four basic services is described in this book.
Processes constitute a thread of control in an address space. Mechanisms for creating, terminating, and otherwise controlling processes are described in Chapter 4. The system multiplexes separate virtual-address spaces for each process; this memory management is discussed in Chapter 5.
The user interface to the filesystem and devices is similar; common aspects are discussed in Chapter 6. The filesystem is a set of named files, organized in a tree-structured hierarchy of directories, and of operations to manipulate them, as presented in Chapter 7. Files reside on physical media such as disks. 4.4BSD supports several organizations of data on the disk, as set forth in Chapter 8. Access to files on remote machines is the subject of Chapter 9. Terminals are used to access the system; their operation is the subject of Chapter 10.
Communication mechanisms provided by traditional UNIX systems include simplex reliable byte streams between related processes (see pipes, Section 11.1), and notification of exceptional events (see signals, Section 4.7). 4.4BSD also has a general interprocess-communication facility. This facility, described in Chapter 11, uses access mechanisms distinct from those of the filesystem, but, once a connection is set up, a process can access it as though it were a pipe. There is a general networking framework, discussed in Chapter 12, that is normally used as a layer underlying the IPC facility. Chapter 13 describes a particular networking implementation in detail.
Any real operating system has operational issues, such as how to start it running. Startup and operational issues are described in Chapter 14.
Sections 2.3 through 2.14 present introductory material related to Chapters 3 through 14. We shall define terms, mention basic system calls, and explore historical developments. Finally, we shall give the reasons for many major design decisions.

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