Translation

(itstool) path: row/entry
17,506
6/100
Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
Trap and fault handling Armadilha e tratamento de falhas
Low-level manipulation of the run-time context of a process Manipulação de baixo nível do contexto de tempo de execução de um processo
Configuration and initialization of hardware devices Configuração e inicialização de dispositivos de hardware
Run-time support for I/O devices Suporte de tempo de execução para dispositivos de E / S
Machine-dependent software for the HP300 in the 4.4BSD kernel Software dependente da máquina para o HP300 no kernel 4.4BSD
total machine dependent total dependente da máquina
39,634 39,634
19.6 19,6
machine dependent headers cabeçalhos dependentes da máquina
1,562 1,562
0.8 0,8
device driver headers cabeçalhos de driver de dispositivo
3,495 3,495
1.7 1,7
device driver source fonte do driver de dispositivo
17,506 17.506
8.7 8,7
3,087 3,087
1.5 1,5
other machine dependent outro dependente da máquina
6,287 6,287
3.1 3,1
routines in assembly language rotinas na linguagem assembly
3,014 3,014
HP/UX compatibility Compatibilidade com HP / UX
4,683 4,683
2.3 2,3
<xref linkend="table-mach-indep"/> summarizes the machine-independent software that constitutes the 4.4BSD kernel for the HP300. The numbers in column 2 are for lines of C source code, header files, and assembly language. Virtually all the software in the kernel is written in the C programming language; less than 2 percent is written in assembly language. As the statistics in <xref linkend="table-mach-dep"/> show, the machine-dependent software, excluding HP/UX and device support, accounts for a minuscule 6.9 percent of the kernel.
Only a small part of the kernel is devoted to initializing the system. This code is used when the system is <emphasis>bootstrapped</emphasis> into operation and is responsible for setting up the kernel hardware and software environment (see Chapter 14). Some operating systems (especially those with limited physical memory) discard or <emphasis>overlay</emphasis> the software that performs these functions after that software has been executed. The 4.4BSD kernel does not reclaim the memory used by the startup code because that memory space is barely 0.5 percent of the kernel resources used on a typical machine. Also, the startup code does not appear in one place in the kernel -- it is scattered throughout, and it usually appears in places logically associated with what is being initialized.
Kernel Services Serviços do Kernel
The boundary between the kernel- and user-level code is enforced by hardware-protection facilities provided by the underlying hardware. The kernel operates in a separate address space that is inaccessible to user processes. Privileged operations -- such as starting I/O and halting the central processing unit (CPU) -- are available to only the kernel. Applications request services from the kernel with <emphasis>system calls</emphasis>. System calls are used to cause the kernel to execute complicated operations, such as writing data to secondary storage, and simple operations, such as returning the current time of day. All system calls appear <emphasis>synchronous</emphasis> to applications: The application does not run while the kernel does the actions associated with a system call. The kernel may finish some operations associated with a system call after it has returned. For example, a <emphasis>write</emphasis> system call will copy the data to be written from the user process to a kernel buffer while the process waits, but will usually return from the system call before the kernel buffer is written to the disk.

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FreeBSD Doc / books_design-44bsdPortuguese (Brazil)

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: row/entry
Source string location
book.translate.xml:486
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/pt_BR/design-44bsd.po, string 119