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Testing Kernel Dump Configuration
The kernel includes a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> node that requests a kernel panic. This can be used to verify that your system is properly configured to save kernel crash dumps. You may wish to remount existing file systems as read-only in single user mode before triggering the crash to avoid data loss.
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>
...
Enter full pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -a -u -r</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl debug.kdb.panic=1</userinput>
debug.kdb.panic:panic: kdb_sysctl_panic
...
After rebooting, your system should save a dump in <filename>/var/crash</filename> along with a matching summary from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crashinfo</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Debugging a Kernel Crash Dump with <command>kgdb</command>
This section covers <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kgdb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The latest version is included in the <package>devel/gdb</package>. An older version is also present in FreeBSD 11 and earlier.
To enter into the debugger and begin getting information from the dump, start kgdb:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kgdb -n <replaceable>N</replaceable></userinput>
Where <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the suffix of the <filename>vmcore.<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename> to examine. To open the most recent dump use:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kgdb -n last</userinput>
Normally, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kgdb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> should be able to locate the kernel running at the time the dump was generated. If it is not able to locate the correct kernel, pass the pathname of the kernel and dump as two arguments to kgdb:

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