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The <link xlink:href=""><application>Sendmail</application></link> server is the default mail-server software for FreeBSD, but it can be replaced with another MTA installed from the Ports Collection. Available ports include <package>mail/exim</package>, <package>mail/postfix</package>, and <package>mail/qmail</package>. Search the mailing lists for discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the available MTAs.
I have forgotten the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password! What do I do?
Do not panic! Restart the system, type <userinput>boot -s</userinput> at the <literal>Boot:</literal> prompt to enter single-user mode. At the question about the shell to use, hit <keycap>Enter</keycap> which will display a <prompt>#</prompt> prompt. Enter <command>mount -urw /</command> to remount the root file system read/write, then run <command>mount -a</command> to remount all the file systems. Run <command>passwd root</command> to change the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password then run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to continue booting.
If you are still prompted to give the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password when entering the single-user mode, it means that the console has been marked as <literal>insecure</literal> in <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>. In this case, it will be required to boot from a FreeBSD installation disk, choose the <guimenuitem>Live CD</guimenuitem> or <guimenuitem>Shell</guimenuitem> at the beginning of the install process and issue the commands mentioned above. Mount the specific partition in this case and then chroot to it. For example, replace <command>mount -urw /</command> with <command>mount /dev/ada0p1 /mnt; chroot /mnt</command> for a system on <replaceable>ada0p1</replaceable>.
If the root partition cannot be mounted from single-user mode, it is possible that the partitions are encrypted and it is impossible to mount them without the access keys. For more information see the section about encrypted disks in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-encrypting.html">Handbook</link>.
How do I keep <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Control</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo> from rebooting the system?
When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the default console driver, this can be done by setting the following <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.vt.kbd_reboot=0</userinput>
How do I reformat DOS text files to <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> ones?
Use this <citerefentry><refentrytitle>perl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>perl -i.bak -npe 's/\r\n/\n/g' file(s)</userinput>
where <replaceable>file(s)</replaceable> is one or more files to process. The modification is done in-place, with the original file stored with a <filename>.bak</filename> extension.
Alternatively, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>tr -d '\r' &lt; dos-text-file &gt; unix-file</userinput>
<replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> is the file containing DOS text while <replaceable>unix-file</replaceable> will contain the converted output. This can be quite a bit faster than using <command>perl</command>.
Yet another way to reformat DOS text files is to use the <package>converters/dosunix</package> port from the Ports Collection. Consult its documentation about the details.
How do I re-read <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and re-start <filename>/etc/rc</filename> without a reboot?
Go into single-user mode and then back to multi-user mode:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>return</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>exit</userinput>
I tried to update my system to the latest <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, but got <emphasis>-BETA<replaceable>x</replaceable></emphasis>, <emphasis>-RC</emphasis> or <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>! What is going on?
Short answer: it is just a name. <emphasis>RC</emphasis> stands for <quote>Release Candidate</quote>. It signifies that a release is imminent. In FreeBSD, <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis> is typically synonymous with the code freeze before a release. (For some releases, the <emphasis>-BETA</emphasis> label was used in the same way as <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>.)
Long answer: FreeBSD derives its releases from one of two places. Major, dot-zero, releases, such as 9.0-RELEASE are branched from the head of the development stream, commonly referred to as <link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link>. Minor releases, such as 6.3-RELEASE or 5.2-RELEASE, have been snapshots of the active <link linkend="stable">-STABLE</link> branch. Starting with 4.3-RELEASE, each release also now has its own branch which can be tracked by people requiring an extremely conservative rate of development (typically only security advisories).
When a release is about to be made, the branch from which it will be derived from has to undergo a certain process. Part of this process is a code freeze. When a code freeze is initiated, the name of the branch is changed to reflect that it is about to become a release. For example, if the branch used to be called 6.2-STABLE, its name will be changed to 6.3-PRERELEASE to signify the code freeze and signify that extra pre-release testing should be happening. Bug fixes can still be committed to be part of the release. When the source code is in shape for the release the name will be changed to 6.3-RC to signify that a release is about to be made from it. Once in the RC stage, only the most critical bugs found can be fixed. Once the release (6.3-RELEASE in this example) and release branch have been made, the branch will be renamed to 6.3-STABLE.
For more information on version numbers and the various Subversion branches, refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html">Release Engineering</link> article.
I tried to install a new kernel, and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> failed. How do I get around this?
Short answer: the security level is greater than 0. Reboot directly to single-user mode to install the kernel.
Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing system flags at security levels greater than 0. To check the current security level:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput>
The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user mode, so boot to single-user mode to install the kernel, or change the security level in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> then reboot. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details on <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on <filename>rc.conf</filename>.
I cannot change the time on my system by more than one second! How do I get around this?
Short answer: the system is at a security level greater than 1. Reboot directly to single-user mode to change the date.


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Source string comment
(itstool) path: answer/para
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/faq.pot, string 604