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Use this <citerefentry><refentrytitle>perl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>perl -i.bak -npe 's/\r\n/\n/g' file(s)</userinput>
where <replaceable>file(s)</replaceable> is one or more files to process. The modification is done in-place, with the original file stored with a <filename>.bak</filename> extension.
Alternatively, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>tr -d '\r' &lt; dos-text-file &gt; unix-file</userinput>
<replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> is the file containing DOS text while <replaceable>unix-file</replaceable> will contain the converted output. This can be quite a bit faster than using <command>perl</command>.
Yet another way to reformat DOS text files is to use the <package>converters/dosunix</package> port from the Ports Collection. Consult its documentation about the details.
How do I re-read <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and re-start <filename>/etc/rc</filename> without a reboot?
Go into single-user mode and then back to multi-user mode:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>return</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>exit</userinput>
I tried to update my system to the latest <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, but got <emphasis>-BETA<replaceable>x</replaceable></emphasis>, <emphasis>-RC</emphasis> or <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>! What is going on?
Short answer: it is just a name. <emphasis>RC</emphasis> stands for <quote>Release Candidate</quote>. It signifies that a release is imminent. In FreeBSD, <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis> is typically synonymous with the code freeze before a release. (For some releases, the <emphasis>-BETA</emphasis> label was used in the same way as <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>.)
Long answer: FreeBSD derives its releases from one of two places. Major, dot-zero, releases, such as 9.0-RELEASE are branched from the head of the development stream, commonly referred to as <link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link>. Minor releases, such as 6.3-RELEASE or 5.2-RELEASE, have been snapshots of the active <link linkend="stable">-STABLE</link> branch. Starting with 4.3-RELEASE, each release also now has its own branch which can be tracked by people requiring an extremely conservative rate of development (typically only security advisories).
When a release is about to be made, the branch from which it will be derived from has to undergo a certain process. Part of this process is a code freeze. When a code freeze is initiated, the name of the branch is changed to reflect that it is about to become a release. For example, if the branch used to be called 6.2-STABLE, its name will be changed to 6.3-PRERELEASE to signify the code freeze and signify that extra pre-release testing should be happening. Bug fixes can still be committed to be part of the release. When the source code is in shape for the release the name will be changed to 6.3-RC to signify that a release is about to be made from it. Once in the RC stage, only the most critical bugs found can be fixed. Once the release (6.3-RELEASE in this example) and release branch have been made, the branch will be renamed to 6.3-STABLE.
For more information on version numbers and the various Subversion branches, refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html">Release Engineering</link> article.
I tried to install a new kernel, and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> failed. How do I get around this?
Short answer: the security level is greater than 0. Reboot directly to single-user mode to install the kernel.
Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing system flags at security levels greater than 0. To check the current security level:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput>
The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user mode, so boot to single-user mode to install the kernel, or change the security level in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> then reboot. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details on <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on <filename>rc.conf</filename>.
I cannot change the time on my system by more than one second! How do I get around this?
Short answer: the system is at a security level greater than 1. Reboot directly to single-user mode to change the date.
Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing the time by more that one second at security levels greater than 1. To check the security level:
The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user mode. Either boot to single-user mode to change the date or change the security level in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details on <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on <filename>rc.conf</filename>.
Why is <command>rpc.statd</command> using 256 MB of memory?
No, there is no memory leak, and it is not using 256 MB of memory. For convenience, <command>rpc.statd</command> maps an obscene amount of memory into its address space. There is nothing terribly wrong with this from a technical standpoint; it just throws off things like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rpc.statd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> maps its status file (resident on <filename>/var</filename>) into its address space; to save worrying about remapping the status file later when it needs to grow, it maps the status file with a generous size. This is very evident from the source code, where one can see that the length argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> is <literal>0x10000000</literal>, or one sixteenth of the address space on an IA32, or exactly 256 MB.
Why can I not unset the <literal>schg</literal> file flag?
The system is running at securelevel greater than 0. Lower the securelevel and try again. For more information, see <link linkend="securelevel">the <acronym>FAQ</acronym> entry on securelevel</link> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page.
What is <literal>vnlru</literal>?
<literal>vnlru</literal> flushes and frees vnodes when the system hits the <varname>kern.maxvnodes</varname> limit. This kernel thread sits mostly idle, and only activates when there is a huge amount of RAM and users are accessing tens of thousands of tiny files.

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(itstool) path: question/para

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book.translate.xml:3827
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a year ago
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books/faq.pot, string 613