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(itstool) path: question/para
How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?
Context English Chinese (Traditional) (zh_TW) State
Replace <emphasis>accf_httpd ipfw</emphasis> with a list of needed modules. Only the listed modules will be built. This reduces the size of the kernel directory and decreases the amount of time needed to build the kernel. For more information, read <filename>/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf</filename>.
Unneeded devices can be removed from the kernel to further reduce the size. See <xref linkend="make-kernel"/> for more information.
To put any of these options into effect, follow the instructions to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig-building.html">build and install</link> the new kernel.
For reference, the FreeBSD 11 amd64 kernel (<filename>/boot/kernel/kernel</filename>) is approximately 25 MB.
Why does every kernel I try to build fail to compile, even <filename>GENERIC</filename>?
There are a number of possible causes for this problem:
The source tree is different from the one used to build the currently running system. When attempting an upgrade, read <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename>, paying particular attention to the <quote>COMMON ITEMS</quote> section at the end.
The <command>make buildkernel</command> did not complete successfully. The <command>make buildkernel</command> target relies on files generated by the <command>make buildworld</command> target to complete its job correctly.
Even when building <link linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>, it is possible that the source tree was fetched at a time when it was either being modified or it was broken. Only releases are guaranteed to be buildable, although <link linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link> builds fine the majority of the time. Try re-fetching the source tree and see if the problem goes away. Try using a different mirror in case the previous one is having problems.
Which scheduler is in use on a running system?
The name of the scheduler currently being used is directly available as the value of the <varname></varname> sysctl:
<prompt>%</prompt> sysctl <replaceable></replaceable> ULE
What is <varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname>?
<varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname> is the maximum number of ticks a process can run without being preempted in the 4BSD scheduler.
Disks, File Systems, and Boot Loaders 硬碟、檔案系統與啟動程式
How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system? 如何在 FreeBSD 中增加新硬碟?
See the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-adding.html">Adding Disks</link> section in the FreeBSD Handbook.
How do I move my system over to my huge new disk?
The best way is to reinstall the operating system on the new disk, then move the user data over. This is highly recommended when tracking <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> for more than one release or when updating a release instead of installing a new one. Install booteasy on both disks with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and dual boot until you are happy with the new configuration. Skip the next paragraph to find out how to move the data after doing this.
Alternatively, partition and label the new disk with either <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sade</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the disks are MBR-formatted, booteasy can be installed on both disks with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> so that the computer can dual boot to the old or new system after the copying is done.
Once the new disk set up, the data cannot just be copied. Instead, use tools that understand device files and system flags, such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Although it is recommended to move the data while in single-user mode, it is not required.
When the disks are formatted with <acronym>UFS</acronym>, never use anything but <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>restore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to move the root file system. These commands should also be used when moving a single partition to another empty partition. The sequence of steps to use <command>dump</command> to move the data from one <acronym>UFS</acronym> partitions to a new partition is:
<command>newfs</command> the new partition.
<command>mount</command> it on a temporary mount point.
<command>cd</command> to that directory.
<command>dump</command> the old partition, piping output to the new one.
For example, to move <filename>/dev/ada1s1a</filename> with <filename>/mnt</filename> as the temporary mount point, type:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>
Rearranging partitions with <command>dump</command> takes a bit more work. To merge a partition like <filename>/var</filename> into its parent, create the new partition large enough for both, move the parent partition as described above, then move the child partition into the empty directory that the first move created:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd var</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - /var | restore rf -</userinput>
To split a directory from its parent, say putting <filename>/var</filename> on its own partition when it was not before, create both partitions, then mount the child partition on the appropriate directory in the temporary mount point, then move the old single partition:


How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?
如何在 FreeBSD 中增加新硬碟?
a month ago
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English Chinese (Traditional) (zh_TW)
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Source string comment
(itstool) path: question/para
Source string location
String age
2 months ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/zh_TW/faq.po, string 417