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Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to see the status of the <filename>wlan0</filename> interface:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; metric 0 mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect mode 11g &lt;hostap&gt;
status: running
ssid freebsdap channel 4 (2427 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode OPEN privacy ON deftxkey 3 wepkey 3:40-bit
txpower 21.5 scanvalid 60 protmode CTS wme burst dtimperiod 1 -dfs
From another wireless machine, it is now possible to initiate a scan to find the <acronym>AP</acronym>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> create wlandev <replaceable>ath0</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> up scan</userinput>
freebsdap 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac 1 54M 22:1 100 EPS
In this example, the client machine found the <acronym>AP</acronym> and can associate with it using the correct parameters. See <xref linkend="network-wireless-wep"/> for more details.
Using Both Wired and Wireless Connections
A wired connection provides better performance and reliability, while a wireless connection provides flexibility and mobility. Laptop users typically want to roam seamlessly between the two types of connections.
On FreeBSD, it is possible to combine two or even more network interfaces together in a <quote>failover</quote> fashion. This type of configuration uses the most preferred and available connection from a group of network interfaces, and the operating system switches automatically when the link state changes.
Link aggregation and failover is covered in <xref linkend="network-aggregation"/> and an example for using both wired and wireless connections is provided at <xref linkend="networking-lagg-wired-and-wireless"/>.
This section describes a number of steps to help troubleshoot common wireless networking problems.
If the access point is not listed when scanning, check that the configuration has not limited the wireless device to a limited set of channels.
If the device cannot associate with an access point, verify that the configuration matches the settings on the access point. This includes the authentication scheme and any security protocols. Simplify the configuration as much as possible. If using a security protocol such as <acronym>WPA</acronym> or <acronym>WEP</acronym>, configure the access point for open authentication and no security to see if traffic will pass.
Debugging support is provided by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Try running this utility manually with <option>-dd</option> and look at the system logs.
Once the system can associate with the access point, diagnose the network configuration using tools like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
There are many lower-level debugging tools. Debugging messages can be enabled in the 802.11 protocol support layer using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wlandebug</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to enable console messages related to scanning for access points and the 802.11 protocol handshakes required to arrange communication:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wlandebug -i <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> +scan+auth+debug+assoc</userinput>
net.wlan.0.debug: 0 =&gt; 0xc80000&lt;assoc,auth,scan&gt;
Many useful statistics are maintained by the 802.11 layer and <command>wlanstats</command>, found in <filename>/usr/src/tools/tools/net80211</filename>, will dump this information. These statistics should display all errors identified by the 802.11 layer. However, some errors are identified in the device drivers that lie below the 802.11 layer so they may not show up. To diagnose device-specific problems, refer to the drivers' documentation.
If the above information does not help to clarify the problem, submit a problem report and include output from the above tools.
USB Tethering
Many cellphones provide the option to share their data connection over USB (often called "tethering"). This feature uses one of <acronym>RNDIS</acronym>, <acronym>CDC</acronym>, or a custom <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">iPhone</trademark>/<trademark class="registered">iPad</trademark> protocol.
<trademark>Android</trademark> devices generally use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>urndis</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
<trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> devices use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipheth</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
Older devices will often use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cdce</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
Before attaching a device, load the appropriate driver into the kernel:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_urndis</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_cdce</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_ipheth</userinput>
Once the device is attached <literal>ue</literal><replaceable>0</replaceable> will be available for use like a normal network device. Be sure that the <quote>USB tethering</quote> option is enabled on the device.
To make this change permanent and load the driver as a module at boot time, place the appropriate line of the following in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:
<personname> <firstname>Pav</firstname> <surname>Lucistnik</surname> </personname> <contrib>Written by </contrib> <email></email>


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(itstool) path: listitem/screen
no-wrap, read-only
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a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 10839